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"Super-Diversity“ in the Mexican Countryside? Experiences from bilingual and intercultural education strategies. Gunther Dietz Universidad Veracruzana guntherdietz@gmail.com. AERA / WERA Conference, Denver, CO, May, 2010. Structure of paper :. Introduction: (Post) Colonial Categories?

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slide1
"Super-Diversity“in the Mexican Countryside?Experiences from bilingual and intercultural education strategies

Gunther Dietz Universidad Veracruzana

guntherdietz@gmail.com

AERA / WERA Conference, Denver, CO, May, 2010

structure of paper
Structure of paper:
  • Introduction: (Post) Colonial Categories?
  • The Legacy of Indigenism
  • Lessons from Indigenous Bilingual Education
  • Interculturalizing the Educational System

5. TheDiversity of Diversities in rural Mexico

6. AnEthnographicExamplefroman “Intercultural University”

post colonial categories
(Post) Colonial Categories?
  • persistance of colonial classifications of difference
  • = system of “castas”
  • shapesperception of cultural diversitysincethen
the legacy of indigenism
The Legacy of Indigenism
  • Development of a particular set of policiesforindigenouspeoples
  • Defined and implementedby non-indigenousactors
  • Firstby colonial administration, laterbynation-stateinstitutions
  • Oscilates in itsaimsover time
phases of indigenismo policies
Phases of Indigenismo Policies
  • Colonial period:* segregation* corporatism* paternalism* parroquialism
  • Nineteenth century:* extermination* racial assimilation* individualization* liberalization
phases of indigenismo policies1
Phases of Indigenismo Policies

3) after Mexican Revolution:* mestizaje* educational nationalism* cultural assimilation* agrarian reform (“statist” vs. “comunalist”)* developmentalism* bilingual teachers as indigenous brokers

phases of indigenismo policies2
Phases of Indigenismo Policies

4) neoliberalism:* privatization / liberalization of land tenure* structural adjustment => “assistentialism”* political dissidence (democratic pluralization)* institutional dissidence (bilingual teachers & community leaders)* new indigenous movements* Zapatista uprising in Chiapas* autonomy claims (local / regional)

interculturalizing the educational system
Interculturalizingthe Educational System
  • “Bilingualbiculturalindigenouseducation”, as part of indigenismo policies
  • De facto often instrumental use of indigenouslanguagefortransitorybilingualism
  • Sincenineties: “intercultural bilingualeducation”
contemporary neo post indigenism
Contemporary (Neo-/Post-)Indigenism?
  • privatization / liberalization of landtenure
  • structuraladjustment => “assistentialism”
  • politicaldissidence(democraticpluralization)
  • institutionaldissidence(bilingualteachers & communityleaders)
  • new indigenousmovements
  • Zapatista uprising in Chiapas
  • autonomyclaims (local / regional)
tendencies in the mexican educational system
Tendencies in theMexicanEducationalSystem
  • Privatization or outsourcing of sub-systems
  • Introduction of market management logics
  • Public-private & GO/NGO partnerships
  • De-centralization of campus locations
  • Inter- / transdisciplinarity of curricula
  • “Employability” & emphasis on key competences
  • Diversification of staff and students
  • Multiculturalization of study programmes
tendencies in the relation between the state indigenous peoples
Tendencies in the Relation betweenthe State / Indigenous Peoples
  • “Post-indigenism”
  • “Judicialization”, legal recognition of indigenousrights / of accesstorights
  • Visibilization of cultural difference
  • Multiculturalizationthroughempowerment
  • Interculturalization of curricula
  • Debate on “diversitymanagement”
the diversity of diversities in rural mexico
TheDiversity of Diversitiesin rural Mexico
  • Beyondindigenous/mestizo identity divide
  • Emergence of new identities, withregardto:

religiouspluralisation

gender and sexual orientation

generation, youthcultures

migration, “rurban” experiences

the diversity of diversities
TheDiversity of Diversities
  • Threenotions/uses of diversity:1. Diversity as a problem=>assimilation / integration / segregation2. Diversity as a right=>affirmativeaction, anti-discrimination3. Diversity as a resource=> intercultural, translationalcompetences
an ethnographic example from an intercultural university
AnEthnographicExamplefroman “Intercultural University”
  • Universidad Veracruzana Intercultural (UVI)
  • since 2005, as part of Universidad Veracruzana
  • decentralized, regionalizedstructure
  • intercultural and interlingualcurriculum
  • B.A. and M.A. programme
  • closerelationbetweenteaching / research / communityserviceprovision
the emergence of a new kind of university
The emergence of a new kind of university
  • SEP-CGEIyB (2001): post-zapatista governmentalprogramme
  • Federal government / Universidad Veracruzana agreement (2004)
  • UV-IIE: Seminaron Multicultural Education in Veracruz
slide18

Actors involved in the UVI creation

Academic & Educational Institutions

Indigenous Movements & Communities

Rural Development & Human Rights NGOs

universidad veracruzana intercultural huasteca regional centre
Universidad Veracruzana InterculturalHuasteca Regional Centre
  • Languages:
    • Nahua
    • Español
    • Otomí
    • Tepehua
    • Huasteco
universidad veracruzana intercultural grandes monta as regional centre
Universidad Veracruzana InterculturalGrandes Montañas Regional Centre
  • Languages:
    • Nahua
    • Español
universidad veracruzana intercultural selvas regional centre
Universidad Veracruzana InterculturalSelvas Regional Centre
  • Languages:
    • Nahua
    • Español
    • Zoque Popoluca
    • Zapoteco
    • Mixe
    • Chinanteco
the b a study programmes at uvl
The B.A. study programmes at UVl

1st & 2nd student generation:

B.A. in Sustainable Regional Development

B.A. in Intercultural Management & Communication

+ cross-cutting Programme in “Languages and Cultures”

slide25

Comunicación

Derechos

Lenguas

Salud

Sustentabilidad

Licenciatura en Gestión Intercultural para el Desarrollo

Virtual, tutorial y semipresencial

PRESENCIAL

PRESENCIAL

“Multimodal Programme of Integrated Training”

slide26

Relation betweenResearch, Teaching & Community Service

RESEARCH

ResearchonCommunity Service

ResearchonTeaching

TeachingforResearch

Community Servicefor Research

TEACHING

COMMUNITYSERVICE

Community Service

for Teaching

Teaching on Community Service

slide27

The Students’ Community-Research

  • UVI students start researching on their community and regional realities, in order to:
  • Recognize sociocultural problems
  • Carry out local and regional “diagnosis”
  • Priorize social needs and community claims with regard to development measures
  • Create or strengthen networks of social actors linked to community or regional development
slide28

The teachers´community-research

The UVI teaching and research staff:

  • carry out individual and collective research
  • closely linked to teaching and community service priorities, according to the 5 “orientations”(= departments)
  • search for relevant research with potenital impact in the regions of Veracruz
slide29

The Departments’ Research Priorities

  • COMMUNICATION
  • Management of arts and cultural projects
  • LANGUAGES
  • Processes of promoting indigenous language usage
  • Tools for linguistic and cultural recovery
  • Development of communicative competences
  • RIGHTS
  • Legal procedures of indigenous justice systems and models of conflict management
  • Indigenous peoples´ participation in decision-making, autonomy agreements and policy making
  • Gender-related discrimination and violence
slide30

The Departments’ Research Priorities

  • HEALTH
    • Health models in intercultural contexts
    • Social networks of health provision
    • Sociocultural epidemiology
    • Nutrition and interculturality

SUSTAINABILITY

    • Agro-ecological production processes
    • Territorial appropriation for sustainable regional development
slide31

Collective research projects:

  • Participative water and water basin management in four regions of Veracruz
  • Articulation of inter-actor knowledge networks for sustainability
  • Visibilization of the Veracruz cultural heritage
  • Inter-Cultural, Inter-Lingual and Inter-Actoral Processes of Constructing and Managing Knowledge in the UVI(InterSaberes)
slide32

In-Service UVI Teacher Training:

  • “Laboratory on Research Methodologies”
  • M.A. Programme in Intercultural Education
  • Research Unit on Intercultural Studies
ethnographic meta research intersaberes
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • To analize how diverse forms of knowledge are being constructed, exchanged, managed, linked and mutually fertilized throughout the UVI programme
  • To open and promote channels and networks among heterogeneous actors who generate and/or manage global and local forms of knowledge
  • To integrate these alternative forms of knowledge into the UVI academic programmes and community service activities
  • To elucidate the underlying “grammar of diversity” which helps to articulate cultural, ethnic, linguistic, religious, gender and generational dimensions of identity/alterity
ethnographic meta research intersaberes1
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • “Meta-discourse analysis” of inter-cultural, inter-lingual and inter-actoral networks of knowledge exchange, circulation and hybridization
  • Identification of underlying “grammar structures” of these networks and institutions, which allow for their multi-dimensional cohesion and integration:
    • their “semantic” dimension: the identity discourses of the participating academic, community and NGO actors,
    • their “pragmatic” dimension: the habitualized practices of interaction and of knowledge circulation among these actors
    • Their “syntactic” dimension: the UV institutinoal frames and their transformation through processes of decentralization, interdiscipinarization and departamentalization
ethnographic meta research intersaberes2
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • Dialogical research:
    • inter-actoral understanding
    • inter-lingual articulation
    • inter-cultural visibilization
  • Reflexive research:
    • intra-cultural, emic, empowerment perspective (difference, identity)
    • inter-cultural, etic, cross-cutting perspective (diversity, interaction)
    • trans-cultural, emic/etic, critical-transformational perspective (inequality, hegemony)
ethnographic meta research intersaberes3
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • Through 3 axes of analysis:
    • Inequality paradigm = “vertical analysis”, universalist approach & monolingual and monocultural habitus
    • Difference paradigm = “horizontal analysis”, particularist approach & multicultural habitus
    • Diversity paradigm = intercultural, i.e. relacional, transversal & “interseccional” analysis
  • Emphasis on the 3 dimensions:
    • “inter-cultural” = expressions and intertwinings of cultural and pedagogical practices which react to different, underlying logics or “grammars”
    • “inter-actoral” = patterns and channels of negotiation and mutual knowledge transfer among the different actors
    • “inter-lingual” = not substantial, but relational competences which ensure transfer and translation between heterogeneous and asymmetrical linguistic and cultural horizons
ethnographic meta research intersaberes4
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • To analize how diverse forms of knowledge are being constructed, exchanged, managed, linked and mutually fertilized throughout the UVI programme
  • To open and promote channels and networks among heterogeneous actors who generate and/or manage global and local forms of knowledge
  • To integrate these alternative forms of knowledge into the UVI academic programmes and community service activities
  • To elucidate the underlying “grammar of diversity” which helps to articulate cultural, ethnic, linguistic, religious, gender and generational dimensions of identity/alterity
ethnographic meta research intersaberes5
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • “Meta-discourse analysis” of inter-cultural, inter-lingual and inter-actoral networks of knowledge exchange, circulation and hybridization
  • Identification of underlying “grammar structures” of these networks and institutions, which allow for their multi-dimensional cohesion and integration:
    • their “semantic” dimension: the identity discourses of the participating academic, community and NGO actors,
    • their “pragmatic” dimension: the habitualized practices of interaction and of knowledge circulation among these actors
    • Their “syntactic” dimension: the UV institutinoal frames and their transformation through processes of decentralization, interdiscipinarization and departamentalization
ethnographic meta research intersaberes6
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • Dialogical research:
    • inter-actoral understanding
    • inter-lingual articulation
    • inter-cultural visibilization
  • Reflexive research:
    • intra-cultural, emic, empowerment perspective (difference, identity)
    • inter-cultural, etic, cross-cutting perspective (diversity, interaction)
    • trans-cultural, emic/etic, critical-transformational perspective (inequality, hegemony)
ethnographic meta research intersaberes7
Ethnographic Meta-Research “InterSaberes”
  • Through 3 axes of analysis:
    • Inequality paradigm = “vertical analysis”, universalist approach & monolingual and monocultural habitus
    • Difference paradigm = “horizontal analysis”, particularist approach & multicultural habitus
    • Diversity paradigm = intercultural, i.e. relacional, transversal & “interseccional” analysis
  • Emphasis on the 3 dimensions:
    • “inter-cultural” = expressions and intertwinings of cultural and pedagogical practices which react to different, underlying logics or “grammars”
    • “inter-actoral” = patterns and channels of negotiation and mutual knowledge transfer among the different actors
    • “inter-lingual” = not substantial, but relational competences which ensure transfer and translation between heterogeneous and asymmetrical linguistic and cultural horizons
slide42

DIFFERENCE

INEQUALITY

  • trans-cultural
  • structural (etic)
  • vertical
  • = “syntactical” axis
  • underlying structures
  • intra-cultural
  • identity-related (emic)
  • horizontal
  • = “semantic” axis
  • (verbalizable) discourse

DIVERSITY

  • inter-cultural
  • “interseccional”, hybrid
  • cross-cutting
  • = “pragmatic” axis
  • (observable) praxis