Unit 7. Social Movements of the 1960s. Contents:. 1. Background 2. Definition 3. The Civil Rights Movement 4. The Youth Movement / Anti-War Movement 5. Women’s Liberation Movement. Background. ★ Greensboro Sit-in
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Social Movements of the 1960s
On February 1, 1960, 4 freshmen from a black college in Greensboro, North Carolina, sat down at a department lunch counter and ordered coffee. When refused, they continued to sit at the counter, openly defying the segregation law prevailing in the state.
Other cafes and lunch- counters call the cops to arrest Blacks for the crime of ordering a cup of coffee in defiance of the segregation laws
---written by the man in above photo
★The civil rights movement, and the youth anti-war, and the women’s liberation movements had long roots in United States history.
“We shall overcome!”
“Let it all hang out!”
“Hell, no, we won’t go.”
“Speak your heart without interruption.”
--Why did the social movements begin?
★One professor argues that “a social movement is a type of behavior in which a large number of participants consciously attempt to change existing institutions and establish a new order of life.”
--Two basic characteristics of all social movements: “structure”and “spontaneity”
--Other necessary parts of a social movement are:
1. a social base of people
2. a “message” or ideology
3. the ability to spread the message and get more supporter
▶One of the most important social movements in the 1960s.
▶Rosa Parks’ spontaneous action in 1955 was believed to be the true beginning of the civil rights movement.
▶The black students’ sit-in at a department lunch counter in North Carolina touched off the nationwide civil rights movement.
--Montgomery Bus Boycott
--organizations and changes
★Direct Action Tactics
--When the civil rights movement began, non-violent direct action tactics like “sit-ins” and “freedom rides”, voter registration.
--Later, anti-war activists added “teach-ins” on college campuses, to educate people about the war in Vietnam as well as protest marches and rallies and etc.
The Freedom Rides
★some leaders in the movement:
--Martin Luther King, Jr.
▶Martin Luther King, Jr., a Baptist minister, was the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference during the civil rights movement of the 1960s.
▶To promote his philosophy of nonviolent protest against segregation and other kinds of social injustice, King organized a series of “marches”, including the March on Washington of August, 1963, when King delivered his famous “I have a Dream” speech.
▶As a civil rights leader, King worked not only to end racial discrimination and poverty, but also to raise the self image of the blacks.
▶Due to his strong belief in nonviolent peaceful protest, King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
▶He was assassinated in the city of Memphis in April 1968.
▶Malcolm X was an American Black Muslim minister and spoke in favor of black separatism and against nonviolence in fighting racial discrimination.
Born May 19, 1925
North Omaha, Neb.
Died February 21, 1965
New York, N.Y.
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964
▶Some of SNCC members thought they needed a strong leader rather than collective leadership.
▶In 1965, they elected a new chairman, Stokeley Carmichael who spoke about Black Power.
★Free Speech Movement
★The Anti-War Movement (against the war in Vietnam)
▶The women’s movement in the 1960s was started by three groups of women and an accident.
--1. a group of professional women who were appointed to a Commission on the Status of Women by President Kennedy in 1961.
--2. white housewives and mothers who read Betty Friedan’s book, The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963.
--3. young activists in the civil rights and anti-war movements.
--the accident was a word in the Civil Rights Act passed in 1964.
--With the publication of The Feminine Mystique in 1963, Betty Friedan became the chief spokesperson of the Women’s Liberation Movement.
--In her book, she compared the American family, or the American society as a whole, to a “comfortable concentration camp”, where women were discriminated against and oppressed.
--In 1966, she helped to found the National Organization for Women (NOW). A reform organization, NOW battled for “equal rights in partnership with men.”