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Operations Management

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  1. Operations Management Operations Management (OM): a specialized field of management associated with the conversion or transformation of resources into products and services • Old term: production and operations management (POM) • Strategically important

  2. Objectives of Operations Management 4 main objectives of operations managers • Managing product/service quality • Planning quantity and capacity • Timing product and services • Achieving the best possible cost

  3. Managing Quality Quality: a measure of how well a product or service performs its intended purpose, including: • How reliable it is • How easy it is to service or repair when it does break down • “Fitness for Use”

  4. Why is Quality Important? Higher quality can lead to: • Higher efficiency • Higher effectiveness • Revenues and margins • Lower costs • Improves customer satisfaction • Improved customer retention

  5. Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM: a management philosophy that: • Focuses on continual improvement • Emphasizes quality inspection at all stages of the production or service output • Encompasses a commitment from employees at all levels • Simultaneous achievement of lower costs, higher quality, and enhanced customer service

  6. Total Quality Management (TQM) Important TQM concepts: Statistical Process Control (SPC) Continuous Process Improvement Six Sigma Employee Empowerment

  7. TQM Concepts: Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control: a quantitative tool to aid in making decisions concerning how well a process is performing • Used to track and highlight results and to identify unacceptable deviations • Typically involves the use of control charts • Establishes upper and lower levels of acceptable quality • Products outside limits are investigated

  8. Quality Control Charts Adapted from Exhibit 13.2

  9. TQM Concepts: Continuous Process Improvement Continuous process improvement: refers to both incremental and breakthrough improvements in the way an organization does business • Also known as • Business process reengineering (BPR) and • Kaizan in Japan • Five key elements: • Objective, Design, Capabilities, Infrastructure, Metrics

  10. TQM Concepts: Six Sigma Six Sigma: a disciplined, data-driven approach for eliminating defects and enhancing quality with an orientation toward the impact such improvements will have on the customer • Six Sigma = no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities • Quality is improved two ways: • DMAIC process (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) focused on improving existing processes • DMADV process (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) focused on the development of new processes

  11. TQM Concepts: Employee Empowerment Empowerment: the sharing of power with others, where those with high amounts of power increase the power of those with less, especially with regard to decision making By empowering employees, organizations can: • Engage the expertise of employees • Allow them to feel responsible for quality • Allow managers to understand and communicate the TQM vision

  12. Quantity and Capacity Planning • Capacity planning: determining how much a firm should produce of a particular product or service • Design capacity: the maximum capacity that can be attained under ideal conditions • Effective capacity: the percent of design capacity a facility is actually expected to maintain Effective Capacity Expected Capacity Design Capacity =

  13. Quantity and Capacity Planning:Inventory Management • Materials requirement planning (MRP): a sophisticated computer system that can be used to “get right materials to right place at right time” • Economic order quantity (EOQ): used to order economical quantity of product so that total inventory costs are minimized • ABC analysis: categorizes which inventory items require most control and attention

  14. Timing Products and Services Delivery of products and services must be timed well to avoid both “stocks-outs” and excess inventory • Three important concepts: • Just-in-time (JIT) systems • Gantt charts • PERT and CPM charts

  15. Timing Products and Services: Just-in-Time (JIT) System • Objective: produce product or service only as needed with only the necessary materials, equipment, and employee time that will add value • Benefits: • Reduces inventory levels (and lowers carrying cost of inventory) • Improves productivity • Increases customer satisfaction

  16. Timing Products and Services: Gantt Charts

  17. Timing Products and Services: PERT/CPM Charts Prepare permits Obtain permits Start Develop plans Select contractor Construction Open store Tenant approval Move into store

  18. Achieving the Best Cost • Productivity measures how wellan organization is using its resources (inputs) to produce goods and services (outputs) Productivity Output Input =

  19. Achieving the Best Cost: Work Standard Work standard: amount of time it should take for a trained employee to complete a specific activity or process • Two work measurement techniques: • Time and motion studies • Review each activity in detail so that unnecessary steps are eliminated • Work sampling • Take a sample of workers and calculate percentage of time spent on each activity during a working day or shift

  20. Achieving the Best Cost: Production Processes Continuous Flow Low Assembly Line Small Batch Flexibility Job Shop High High Economies of Scale Low

  21. Achieving the Best Cost: Production Processes • Economies of Scale • Learning Effects • The Learning/Experience Curve • Flexible Manufacturing Systems • Automation of a production line by controlling and guiding all machinery by computer • Attempt to capture both economies of scale and learning effects

  22. Achieving the Best Cost: Technology • Computer-aided design (CAD) and Computer-aided engineering (CAE) • Computerized systems used to design new products, modify existing ones, and test prototypes • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) • the use of computers to direct manufacturing processes • Designing for manufacturing (DFM) • designing products for ease of manufacturing to maximize their functionality for customers

  23. Managing the Supply Chain Supply chain is: • Coordinated system of resources, information, activities, people, and organizations • Involved in moving a product or service from raw materials to components • Into a finished product or service • Delivered to the end customer Suppliers Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer

  24. Managing the Supply Chain: Using Technology • Electronic data interchange (EDI): the integration and real-time exchange of supply chain information that allows supply chain managers to manage complicated relationships and processes • Web-based systems