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THERMODYNAMICS What the high school science student should know to better understand nuclear energy Fred Gunnerson, Ph.D. University of Idaho gunner@if.uidaho.edu GNEP National Physics Teachers Workshop Idaho Falls, ID July 15-20, 2007. THERMODYNAMICS. ‘Zeroth Law’ (Temperature)

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THERMODYNAMICSWhat the high school science student should know to better understand nuclear energyFred Gunnerson, Ph.D.University of Idahogunner@if.uidaho.eduGNEP National Physics Teachers WorkshopIdaho Falls, ID July 15-20, 2007

thermodynamics
THERMODYNAMICS
  • ‘Zeroth Law’ (Temperature)
  • First Law (Energy)
  • Second Law (Entropy and the Heat Engine)
0th law temperature measurement thermometer calibration
0th LawTemperature Measurement / Thermometer Calibration
  • What is Temperature?
  • Temperature scales
  • Thermal Equilibrium
1st law energy units relation to force conservation of energy
1st Lawenergy / units / relation to forceCONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Types of Energy

Potential

Kinetic

Work = F x d

Internal / Heat

Nuclear (E=mc2 nucleon binding energy)

Radiant (EM spectrum)

Chemical

Electrical

Etc……

Uses of Energy

  • Electricity
  • Transportation
  • Propulsion
  • Etc…

Sources of Energy

Fossil Fuel

Nuclear (fission & fusion)

Renewable

Etc…….

2nd law entropy and the heat engine

Thot

Heat Engine

Work

Tcold

2nd LawEntropy and the Heat Engine

ηmax = 1 – (Tcold / Thot)

Carnot Heat Engine

a nuclear reactor is a source of heat a nuclear power plant is a heat engine
A nuclear reactor is a source of heatA nuclear power plant is a heat engine

HEAT is generated by fission and radioactive decay

Heat boils water to steam,

which turns a trubine,

which turns a generator

which makes electricity.

Rankine Cycle

a nuclear reactor is also a source of radiations neutrons gamma rays x rays alpha beta gamma etc
A nuclear reactor is also a source of radiationsneutrons / gamma rays / x-rays / alpha-beta-gamma / etc.

Isotope Production

Materials R&D

possible advantages of fast reactors
Possible Advantages of Fast Reactors

Better use of fuels

Less waste with shorter half-lives

advanced test reactor atr
ADVANCED TEST REACTOR - ATR

Advanced Fuels Testing

oxide / nitride / carbide / inert matrix / MOX / etc.

Materials Testing

radiation damage / thermophysical properties / cross-sections / radiography / etc.

Isotope production

thanks
Thanks

other questions?