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COMPARATIVE ESSAY

COMPARATIVE ESSAY

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COMPARATIVE ESSAY

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  1. COMPARATIVE ESSAY BLOCK METHOD

  2. One method of developing a comparative essay between two literary works is the BLOCK METHOD. • Ideas are blocked into categories and paragraphs. • The author (YOU) will discuss everything that needs to be said about topic A;then, the essay continues to say what is needed to be said about topic B (with a transition paragraph in between).

  3. It is important to understand the difference between COMPARING and CONTRASTING. • Comparing looks at likenesses and differences. • Contrasting discusses how things are different. • It is very important that you take the time to plan how to use this when you do an outline for your essay before you start to write.

  4. The Block Method: An outline • Introduction: • Think about your expository essay intro: you responded to the question using one literary work, this time you will respond to the question using BOTH works. • Think: blurb, sweet old lady on the plane • Note the similarities/differences in the works with relation to the question : THESIS STATEMENT

  5. Main Body: • Your first 2 to 3 (or even 4) paragraphs will be entirely dedicated to the 1st literary work mentioned in your introduction. • You are staying on track with the THESIS STATEMENT, which has answered the question. • You will support your writing with good examples and quotes from the work. • Don’t forget about proper topic sentences and transition words!!!! • TEER

  6. TEER • Transition Word • Topic Sentence • Example • Explain • Refer Back

  7. Before you start the discussion of your second literary work mentioned in your introduction you MUST have a proper transition paragraph. • In this paragraph you will sum up what you have already said about the first work and what you will discuss about the second work. • Proper transition words are VERY important here!!!!

  8. Your next 2 to 3 (or even 4) paragraphs will be entirely dedicated to the 2nd literary work mentioned in your introduction. • You are staying on track with your THESIS STATEMENT, which has answered the question. • You will support your writing with good examples and quotes from the work. • Don’t forget about proper topic sentences and transition words!!!! • TEER

  9. Conclusion: • You need to draw the two sections together here. • You need to provide overall conclusions as to how the 2 works answer the question – refer back to your original THESIS. • It’s a good idea to give a general opinion on the 2 works (no personal pronouns!) • Try to have a good quote with which to leave the readers. • Do NOT introduce new ideas at this point.

  10. TRANSITION WORDS!! • For Comparison: • Just as….so too • Similarly • In the same way • Likewise • The same as • Similar to

  11. For contrast: • But/yet/or • In contrast • Otherwise • Rather • However • On the other hand • Nevertheless • Alternatively • At the same time • On the contrary

  12. Let’s look at the example essay written using the BLOCK method: • Topic A : what is it? • P #2 discusses: • P#3 discusses: • P#4 discusses: • P#5 discusses: WHAT IS MISSING??

  13. What will you write about?? • You need to start developing ideas about which two works you will compare. • What other literary works have we studied this year? • Start by brainstorming: • Themes • Symbols • Characters • Conflict

  14. Remember… Always use the planning space for your essay. It will take about 5 minutes to plan but will give you extra time to write a coherent essay.

  15. Let’s take a look at 2 other literary works we have studied this year and examine how they compare with Macbeth. • Oedipus Rex • Night

  16. CONFLICT/CHARACTER • The external conflicts are obvious, we will concentrate on internal struggle – which also gives us a deeper understanding of the character(s). • We will also look at character traits.

  17. Macbeth • His internal struggle is very intense • Vacillates • He struggles immediately with what the predictions of the witches tell him about his future. • Struggle to listen to Lady Macbeth – she appeals to his manliness – he responds to this. • Steeped in murder – becomes desperate. • His internal struggle in for power – he is not to be pitied. • What else? • QUOTES

  18. Character traits : Macbeth • A courageous and strong general • A moral coward • Ambitious • Power obsessed • Superstitious and imaginative • Loved his wife • His character deteriorated

  19. Oedipus • His internal struggle is also very intense: • He originally flees to avoid the prophecy he has been told • Jocasta encourages him to forget what he has heard and move on (contrast with Lady Macbeth) • He has so much inner turmoil, but contrastingly to Macbeth, his struggle is not power obsessed – it what the Gods have presented to him, his own self-loathing. • He does everything he can to not accept this truth about himself – he is not responsible for his actions the way Macbeth is

  20. Character traits : Oedipus • Proud, efficient and intelligent King • Compassionate • Excessive pride (tragic flaw) – wants his greatness to be recognized • Enjoys power • Admirable • Intelligent man – willing to take action

  21. Night • Although Elie’s internal conflict was indeed intense, it was not the same type in inner struggle that the characters of Oedipus and Macbeth suffered. • His struggle was that of human survival, his struggle to keep/lose his faith and his exposure to such inhuman actions and the slaughter of human innocence.

  22. Oedipus/Macbeth • The inner struggle of faith does not fit quite as well into the story of Oedipus and Macbeth. • We could consider: • Macbeth’s struggle with what the witches say and what he wants • MacDuff certainly questions the presence of God and his lack of faith when his innocent family is slaughtered • Oedipus is the contrast – the Gods relentless intervention.

  23. SYMBOLS • A symbol is a person, place, or thing comes to represent an abstract idea or concept -- it is anything that stands for something beyond itself. • There are many symbols throughout these 3 works – don’t forget that different symbols may represent the same ideas and connect similar thoughts/motifs/themes.

  24. Macbeth • Night/Nighttime Imagery • Represents: • Evil • Death/murder • Darkness of the human soul • Foul deeds • Other?

  25. Murder/killing takes place at night • Battles – death/destruction • Macbeth’s soul becomes darker and darker • “stars hide your fire…..” • Witches also represent this darkness and evil • Lady Macbeth in the sleepwalking scene – she must always have a light by her side • “doctor quote”

  26. Night • Night/Nighttime Imagery • Represents: • Evil • Death/murder • Darkness of the human soul • TITLE • The travel to their deaths/cattle car • Living through the darkest period of humanity

  27. Elie’s experiences : Title • Cattle car imagery • Evil deeds committed • Nazis advancement • Contrast : relentless inhumane murders not battle. • Destruction of millions of Jews • The entire story can representing one long nightmare for the Jewish people

  28. Oedipus • There is no strong presence of Night or night time imagery in this play

  29. Macbeth • Kingship • Symbolic of rise to power • Symbolizes excessive ambition and pride • Symbolic of wrong-doing/evil

  30. Macbeth claims the title of king himself through evil and murder • His rise to power was not through bloodline or loyalty • A king should be gentle and kind : Duncan

  31. Oedipus • Kingship • Symbolic of rise to power • Symbolizes excessive ambition and pride • Symbolic of wrong-doing/evil

  32. Unknowingly commits murder (in terms of prophecy) • Similarly, this murder does lead to him becoming king – but in a much different way than Macbeth • Laius was a good and respected King

  33. Characters in all 3 works • The characters of Macbeth, Oedipus and Elie all symbolize the struggle for self-preservation. • Macbeth : greed and ambition to become king. • Oedipus : pride and struggle to not become what the prophecy predicted • Elie : struggle to stay strong, survive and stay true to himself and his steadfast faith in God.

  34. Theme • A theme is the central idea or ideas explored by a literary work. • A work of literature may have more than one theme. • We can see various themes and motifs present in all three works

  35. “The human struggle to survive/self-preservation” • Macbeth did whatever it took to become king. • His struggle was not one of survival but one of greedy, power driven self-preservation. • He was steeped in blood, evil and over ambition to get to where he wanted to be. • In the end where does it leave him?

  36. Elie did whatever he had to do to survive – to live – in contrast to Macbeth. • He did it for both himself and his father • Witness to inhumane acts and extreme violence and aggression – he prevailed. • In the end – where did it leave him?

  37. Oedipus was relentless to discover his true story. • His struggle for self-preservation was not to seek power and kingship – itwas about his true self/story. • In the end?

  38. “Man’s capacity for evil knows no bounds” • Macbeth was responsible for the killing of a kind and good king – this was THE crime of Shakespeare’s time: high treason. • Macbeth became more and more evil as the play progresses. • Duncan’s murder • Banquo/Fleance • MacDuff’s family • Steeped in blood and death

  39. 6 million Jews killed • Nazis destruction of an entire race • SS soldiers versus the Jews • Jews versus Jews • Eliereceived and was witness to extreme inhumane acts • So much evil and murder present in the camps

  40. Oedipus: details of what he discovers • He tries so hard to avoid his fate • Evil – what the Gods told him – no mercy • Evil – he had to accept the evil acts he brought upon himself • Contrasts with Macbeth’s evil.

  41. “Through death and destruction truths are revealed” • A man’s heart can turn dark. • Influence of evil (witches/prophecy/apparitions) • Ambition and want for power lead to death and destruction • Murders • Corrupt way to the throne • Goodness prevails : Malcolm becomes king

  42. Elie experiences extreme pain and suffering • Death and destruction in the camps • Contrastingly to Macbeth – Elie discovers that at the heart of every man there is evil (in the inhumane destructive conditions of the camps).

  43. Oedipus also discovers his real truth (through death and destruction) • His path is different, pre-determined by the Gods. • Self destruction

  44. “Uncontrolled lust for power leads to certain and terrible consequences” • Macbeth transforms in to a power obsessed character steeped in murder, death and destruction. • Nazi regime • Oedipus