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Characteristics of Grid Applications, Example Applications on Grid . Dr. Tugba Taskaya Temizel. Grid Computing Everywhere. Business : Sectors like financial services, industrial manufacturing, energy…. Humanitarian works. Research : Health, Aerospace, Astronomy, Finance…. Government.
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Characteristics of Grid Applications, Example Applications on Grid Dr. Tugba Taskaya Temizel
Grid ComputingEverywhere Business: Sectors like financial services, industrial manufacturing, energy… Humanitarian works Research : Health, Aerospace, Astronomy, Finance… Government
First Primitive Applications of Grid Computing • Personal computers are used to • search for extraterrestrial life, SETI@home.project • screen 3.5 billion molecules for cancer-fighting potential. Screensaver Lifesaver • try and produce a forecast of the climate in the 21st century. climateprediction.net
Example Domains • High-Energy Physics: LHC, Tevatron, HERA, … • Biology: Medical Images, Bioinformatics, Drug Discovery • Earth Science: Hydrology, Pollution, Climate, Geophysics, … • Astrophysics: Planck, MAGIC • Fusion • Computational Chemistry • …
Grid Computing ApplicationsEU Projects • BEinGRID (EU contribution: €15.7m), experiments to test and accelerate the take-up of grids in a range of various European business sectors (entertainment, financial, industrial, chemistry, retail, textiles, etc). • XtreemOS (EU contribution: €14.2m), aims to extend the open source operating system Linux with grid services and support for virtual organisations. • BREIN (EU contribution: €6.6m), adapting grid technologies from academic environments to support critical applications for logistics management at airports. • Between 2002 and 2006, the commission has invested about €130m in grid research and €250m in grid deployment. Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/09/21/eu_grid_research/
Grid Computing Applications • Sun Microsystems has provided an online Grid Compute service on the Web in the U.S., charging customers $1 per hour per CPU through billing fulfillment provider PayPal (Gridcomputingplanet.com, March 21, 2006).
Grid Computing Applications Commercial • IBM created Microprocessor design grid which was resulted in 80% utilisation of resources for chip simulation and reduction of the development cycle for chips (IBM 2003). • Boeing created a grid to analyse the aerodynamics of their new set of rockets. After 16 months the system was found to perform better than expected and may become the standard for developing rockets (Linux, 2001).
Grid Computing Applications Commercial • Novartis created a PC Grid comprising 3700 desktop systems. The Grid has created more than 5 teraflops of computing power. • Estimated savings of $200M over 3 years (Foster 2003).
Grid Computing Applications Commercial: Business & Technology benefits defined by IBM • Accelerate time to results • Enable collaboration and promote operational flexibility • Efficiently scale to meet variable business demands • Increase productivity • Leverage existing capital investments • Infrastructure optimization • Increase access to data and collaboration • Resilient, highly available infrastructure Source: http://www-03.ibm.com/grid/about_grid/benefits.shtml
Grid Computing Applications Research Fastest particle accelarator: Large Hadron Collider When completed in 2007, CERN's Large Hadron Collider will send protons and ions from hydrogen nuclei rushing through a 17-mile circular tunnel at speeds of up to 52,200,000 miles per hour. It will produce approximately 15 Petabytes of data annually. Image sourceChristian Richters, Wired News http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG/
Grid Computing Applications Research: Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation • NEESgrid: national infrastructure to couple earthquake engineers with experimental facilities, databases, computers, & each other • On-demand access to experiments, data streams, computing, archives, collaboration NEESgrid: Argonne, Michigan, NCSA, UIUC, USC
Mathematicians Solve NUG30 • Looking for the solution to the NUG30 quadratic assignment problem • An informal collaboration of mathematicians and computer scientists • Condor-G delivered 3.46E8 CPU seconds in 7 days (peak 1009 processors) in U.S. and Italy (8 sites) • NUG30 Solution:14,5,28,24,1,3,16,15, • 10,9,21,2,4,29,25,22, • 13,26,17,30,6,20,19, • 8,18,7,27,12,11,23 MetaNEOS: Argonne, Iowa, Northwestern, Wisconsin Source:Shawn McKee The Grid:The Future of High Energy Physics Computing? January 7,2002
Grid Computing Applications Research • Astrogrid (2001-2007) is a £10M ($17.5M) project aimed at building a data-grid for UK astronomy, which will form the UK contribution to a global VirtualObservatory. Astrogrid is funded via the UK's Particle Physics & Astronomy Research Council(PPARC) and by the European Commission. From the project's initial (2001) proposal, some of the goals of the Astrogrid project are : • A working datagrid for key UK databases • High throughput data mining facilities for interrogating those databases • A uniform archive query and data-mining software interface • The ability to browse simultaneously multiple datasets (Members: Edinburgh, Belfast, Cambridge, Leicester, London, Manchester, RAL) (Astrogrid 2006)
Grid Computing Applications Research Applications • ‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.’ (John Taylor, Director General of Research Councils) Funding: First phase (2001-2004) £74M ($130M) Second phase (2004-2006) £96M ($168M) UK e-Science Centres Source: http://www.nesc.ac.uk/centres/
Grid Computing Applications Access Grid • The Access Grid is a collection of familiar resources (projectors, cameras, microphones) linked by networked computers to enable audiovisual collaboration between remote participants: videoconferencing. • Just as importantly, the Access Grid provides interfaces to Grid middleware enabling the creation of new tools for collaborative visualization, data-sharing, remote control of instruments and interaction with other grid resources. http://www.accessgrid.org/ Images: http://www.cisl.ucar.edu/news/02/features/vislab/trustees5.html http://www.informatics.bangor.ac.uk/~ade/gallery/ag/IMG_0746
Grid Application Enablement • An application is said to be grid-enabled when it can simply run in a grid. • Batch anywhere • Independent Concurrent Batch • Parallel Batch • Service • Parallel Services • Tightly Coupled Parallel Programs
Grid Application EnablementBatch anywhere • The goal is to be able to run one instance of the application on almost any of the many nodes in the grid, as selected by the grid middleware at run time. • The only aspect of concurrence is that this node and other nodes are concurrently running other applications. • Do not assume that the execution of the application is on the same as the previous or next execution.
Grid Application EnablementIndependent Concurrent Batch • Multiple independent instances of the same application run concurrently. • Several instances run independently without interference. • Independent jobs are common. For example, Job X for Account A can run concurrently with Job X for Account B. • Databases and other resources don't have hot spots or deadlocks.
Grid Application EnablementParallel Batch • Parallel Batch takes each user's batch work, subdivides it, disperses it out to multiple nodes, collects it, and then aggregates the results. • Parallel support subdivides and spreads work among nodes. • Program function can be divided into a client and multiple server jobs. • The client can carve up work into smaller server jobs for scattering. • Server jobs behave as multiple independent instances, above. • After gathering the intermediate results, the client can assemble the final results together.
Grid Application EnablementService • A Web Service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. WSA specification 08/08/03 • The big difference from previous strategies is that you can make many instances of a service available at once and available to be exploited in parallel by each client. • It provides multiple service instances. • It permits these instances to be callable in parallel on the client's behalf.
Grid Application EnablementParallel Services • The goal is to be able to run one instance of the application on almost any of the many nodes in the grid, as selected by the grid middleware at run time. • Each instance of the client exploits multiple service instances in parallel. • The service instances do not communicate with each other. • The rate of service requests is still moderate. The client programs are lightly coupled to the servers.
Grid Application EnablementTightly Coupled Parallel Programs • Tightly Coupled Parallel Programs is the domain of specialized applications in engineering, physics, and biological modeling, such as finite state analysis. • Provides intense communications and synchronization: • Between client and services • Among services
Qualification Scheme for Grid Applications • Critical items for excluding applications from use on a Grid environment: • High inter-process communication between jobs without high speed switch connection (for example, MPI, in general, multi-threaded applications need to be checked for their need of inter-process communication). • Strict job scheduling requirements depending on data provisioning by uncontrolled data producers.
Qualification Scheme for Grid Applications • Critical items for excluding applications from use on a Grid environment: • Unresolved obstacles to establish sufficient bandwidth on the network. • Strongly limiting system environment dependencies for the jobs • Requirements for safe business transactions (commit and roll-back) via a grid. At the moment there are standards for secure transaction processing on grids. • High inter-dependencies between the jobs, which expose complex job flow management to the grid server and cause high rates of inter-process communication. • Unsupported network protocols used by jobs may be prohibited to perform their tasks due to firewall rules.
Qualification Scheme for Grid Applications • Design considerations regarding data management: • Data topology: location, security, up-to-date copy, I/O considerations. • Character sets and multimedia formats. • Amount of data. • Data I/O. • Data sharing. • Temporary data storage. • Data timeliness. • Data encryption.
References • Jacob,B. et.al. “Enabling Applications for Grid Computing with Globus”, IBM Redbook, June 2003. • Kra, D. “Six strategies for grid application enablement, part 1: Overview”, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/grid/library/gr-enable/. • Jacob, B. “Design an application for grid”, Nov. 2003. http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/grid/library/gr-design.html • Foster I., Kesselman C., Tuecke S. (2003) The anatomy of the grid. In F.Berman, G.Fox, T.Hey (ed) Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality, Chichester, John Willey & Sons Inc, pp. 171-199 • The impact of grid computing on business http://www.bcs.org/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.3054 • IBM (2003). IBM, IBM GRID Computing, 2003, http://www.ibm.com/GRID • Linux. (2001) GRIDtoday, Linux NetworX - Grid Cluster Boosts Boeing's Delta Iv Rockets, 2001, http://www.GRIDtoday.com/03/0113/100949.html • Climateprediction.net (2006), http://climateprediction.net/ • Screensaver Lifesaver (2006), http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/curecancer.html • Seti.net (2006), http://seti.net/ • The Physiology of the Grid: An Open Grid Services Architecture for Distributed Systems Integration”, Foster, Kesselman, Nick, Tuecke, 2002 • Astrogrid project (2006), http://wiki.astrogrid.org/bin/view/Astrogrid/WebHome. • Gridcomputingplanet.com (2006), Grid Computing For Sale, PayPal Accepted, http://www.gridcomputingplanet.com/news/article.php/3593156 • Gridcomputingplanet.com (2006), Analysts see big year for grid, http://www.gridcomputingplanet.com/news/article.php/3577831