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Boscoreale cups, ca. 12-14 CE Augustus on curule chair, holding globe, followed by Mars and 7 provinces personified (or 4 + Virtus, Venus, Eros), turning towards Venus, who holds Victoria and is followed by Roma and the Genius Populi Romani (Roman people personified).

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Boscoreale cups, ca. 12-14 CE

Augustus on curule chair, holding globe, followed by Mars and 7 provinces personified (or 4 + Virtus, Venus, Eros), turning towards Venus, who holds Victoria and is followed by Roma and the Genius Populi Romani (Roman people personified)

Boscoreale cups, ca. 12-14 CE

Augustus as imperator, on military commander’s stool, extending his hand to barbarians and their children

shield of virtue 26 bce from arles shield was granted in 27 bce
“Shield of Virtue,” 26 BCE, from Arles(shield was granted in 27 BCE)

SenatusPopulusque RomanusImp(eratori) Caesari divi f(ilio) AugustoCo(n)s(ul) VIII dedit clupeumvirtutis clementiaeiustitiae pietatis ergadeos patriamque

The Senateand the Roman peopleto Commander Caesar Augustus, son of the Divine,in his 8th consulship [26 BCE], gave the shield of virtue,clemency, justice, pietyfor his actionstowards the gods and the fatherland

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Augustus and the “Shield of Virtue,” 19 BCE(clipeus virtutis in literature; clupeus virtutis in coins, inscriptions)

Obverse: Caesar AugustusReverse: S(enatus) P(opulus) q(ue) R(omanus) cl(upeum) v(irtutis)“The Senate and the Roman people [dedicated] the shield of virtue”

What do these four virtues embody?

virtus – “virtue”clementia – “clemency”iustitia – “justice”pietas – “piety”

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First Book of the First Decad The Histories From the Foundation of the Cityby Titus Livius of Patavium(Paris, 1543)