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2d Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Big Business. Georgia Performance Standards: SSUSH11a-d. SSUSH11 The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.

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2d industrial revolution and the growth of big business

2d Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Big Business

Georgia Performance Standards:


SSUSH11 The student will describe the economic, social, and geographic impact of the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction.

a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business.

b. Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor.

c. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies

d. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life

growth of railroads1
Growth of Railroads
  • Need:
    • Faster mode of transportation
  • Results:
    • Creation of a national market
    • Standardized “American” culture
    • Helps lead to:
      • Urbanization
      • Industrialization,
      • Organized Labor
      • Immigration
railroads and the west1
Railroads and the West
  • Government involvement in settlement:
    • Morrill Act (1862)
      • Public land used or sold to found colleges
      • Examples: UGA, Ft. Valley, Auburn, AL A&M
    • Homestead Act (1862)
      • People could gain property after living on it and farming for 5 years
railroads and the west2
Railroads and the West
  • “Railheads”
    • Cities on a rail line that served to move cattle eastward
  • Cattle Drives
  • Ranching
    • “open range”
    • Introduction of barbed wire
transcontinental railroad
Transcontinental Railroad
  • Prior:
    • Routes to California
      • Overland by wagon train (2 months)
      • Water, via Panama/Nicaragua (2-6 months)
      • Water, via Cape Horn (6-10 months)
  • Pacific Railroad Acts
    • Central Pacific – from Sacramento CA east
    • Union Pacific – from Council Bluffs IA west
transcontinental railroad1
Transcontinental Railroad
  • Problems:
    • Weather
    • Geography
    • Supplies
      • Had to be shipped to San Francisco



transcontinental railroad2
Transcontinental Railroad
  • Meeting:
    • Promontory, Utah
    • May 10, 1869
chinese labor and railroads
Chinese Labor and Railroads
  • Early labor:
    • Miners
      • Viewed as unreliable, expensive
  • Move to Chinese immigrants
    • Cheap
      • Economic conditions in China were poor
    • By 1868, 12,000 were employed by the Central Pacific Railroad (80% of their workforce)
chinese labor
Chinese Labor
  • Harsh treatment
    • Paid less
    • Discriminated against due to ethnicity
reaction to chinese laborers
Reaction to Chinese Laborers

The Mongolian invasion has begun at last in good earnest…the first detachment of Chinese laborers…numbering 250 men, arrived… carrying their baggage on poles…in true Oriental fashion. Most of these men were employed in the construction of the Pacific Railroad…. - Harper’s Weekly, 22 January, 1870

rise of trusts monopolies

Monopoly: control over all or almost all trade or production of a good

Trusts: a large corporation or combination with a monopoly of some service or commodity.

Rise of Trusts/Monopolies
  • Cause:
    • Rise of urban centers (cities)
    • Rise of industrialization/mass production
    • Transportation improvements
  • Two Major Corporations:
    • Standard Oil
    • U.S. Steel
big business
Big Business
  • A pejorative (negative) term used to describe the political and economic power of a corporation that influences prices of goods
    • Wal-Mart
    • Exxon
    • Home Depot
    • Now it’s your turn.
  • Monopoly
    • One company has exclusive control over their entire industry
    • Wipe out all of the competition
    • Two Methods:
      • Vertical Integration
      • Horizontal Integration
vertical integration
Vertical Integration
  • One company controls all means of production and distribution from beginning to end
    • Middleman is eliminated
    • Costs less for company to create a product
      • Lower prices
      • Consumers go with cheaper prices
      • Competition eliminated

Vertical Integration

One Company

Owns all

Phases of


From Top

To Bottom

Raw Materials

Assembly and


End Product


horizontal integration
Horizontal Integration
  • Buy out the competition
    • If companies refuse to sell, lower prices to undercut the competition
    • Consumers flock to lower prices
    • Competition goes bankrupt or is forced to sell

Horizontal Integration

To Form a










Purchased by

one Company



















steel industry
Steel Industry
  • Needed to build railroads, buildings
  • Mass production, perfected by Carnegie, allowed U.S. steel production to skyrocket
u s steel
U.S. Steel
  • Formed in 1901
    • World’s first billion dollar company
    • Produced 67% of U.S. steel in that year
robber baron
Robber Baron
  • Negative - a business leader that builds wealth by lying, cheating and stealing
    • Robs from consumers
    • Abuses employees and workers
    • Drives competitors out of business (And enjoys it!)
    • Drains the country of natural resources
    • Bribes government officials
captain of industry
Captain of Industry
  • Positive - a business leader that positively contributes to the country
    • Creates jobs
    • Increases availability of goods
    • Expands markets
    • Helps the economy
    • A philanthropists – donates money or goods to a charity
      • Creates museums, libraries, universities
andrew carnegie 1835 1919
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)
  • “Rags to riches”
    • Born poor in Scotland
    • Became rich in U.S. due to investments
    • Worked his way to the top
    • Gave away most of his fortune
standard oil company
Standard Oil Company
  • Oil company founded in Cleveland, Ohio by John D. Rockefeller
  • Successful, yet ruthless
    • By 1890, it controlled 88% of all refined oil
    • By 1904, it controlled 91% of U.S. oil production

DID YOU KNOW: Today, descendants of Standard Oil Company still exist. Do you recognize any of these logos of just a small portion of the successors to Standard Oil?

john d rockefeller 1839 1937
John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937)
  • Founder of Standard Oil
  • Famous businessman and philanthropist
  • Richest man in the world at his death
    • Worth $1,400,000,000 at his death, approx. $663,000,000,000 today
thomas edison 1847 1931
Thomas Edison (1847-1931)
  • American Inventor
  • Held over 1,000 patents
edison s inventions
Edison’s Inventions
  • Electric Light Bulb
    • Improvement,1879
  • Motion Pictures
    • Kinetograph/Kinetoscope, 1891
  • Phonograph
    • 1878
other inventions of the time
Other Inventions of the Time
  • Cash Register (1879)
    • James Ritty
  • Popcorn Machine (1885)
    • Charles Cretors
  • Thermostat (1883)
    • Warren Johnson
  • Dishwasher (1886)
    • Josephine Cochrane
other inventions of the time1
Other Inventions of the Time
  • Photographic Film / Roll Film (1885)
    • George Eastman
  • Zipper (1891)
    • Whitcomb Judson
  • Air Conditioning (1902)
    • Willis Carrier
  • Electric Washing Machine (1908)
    • Alva Fisher
other inventions of the time2
Other Inventions of the Time
  • Electric Chair (1881)
    • Alfred Southwick / Harold Brown
  • Skyscraper (1885)
    • William Jenney
    • Used steel frame construction
    • Chicago, Home Insurance Company Building
other inventions of the time3
Other Inventions of the Time
  • Adding Machine [Comptometer] (1887)
    • Dorr Felt
  • Wireless Radio (1893)
    • Guglielmo Marconi
other inventions of the time4
Other Inventions of the Time
  • Assembly Line
    • Developed by Henry Ford & Ford Motor Co.
    • Developed from 1908-1915





alexander graham bell 1847 1922
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
  • Invented the telephone (1876)
inventions of the time
Inventions of the Time
  • Impact on American life

How did these inventions

change the way people lived?