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Fibreglass. Fibre Reinforced Plastics…. FRP....Fibreglass. Safety and Composites. Respiratory protection Skin Protection Eye protection Hearing protection Consideration of others. Strand magnified at 1000x. Tools and Materials. Grinders Sanders Cut-off saws Die-grinders

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safety and composites
Safety and Composites

Respiratory protection

Skin Protection

Eye protection

Hearing protection

Consideration of others

Strand magnified at 1000x

tools and materials
Tools and Materials



Cut-off saws


Air chisel

Blow gun

Heat gun

Pneumatic/manual adhesive applicator guns

Masking materials

Repair materials

Glass cloth



Safety equipment

Clean up materials

surface preparation
Surface Preparation
  • The first step in any successful repair is the appraisal of the surface
  • Wash the panel with warm soapy water to remove water soluble contamination then rinse clean
  • Once dry, clean all panels with the appropriate wax and grease remover so as to float all (solvent soluble) contaminants to the surface






50 grit

Grinding Disc Grits

40 grit

36 grit

24 grit


Differences in Sandpapers

Aluminum Oxide


Aluminum Zirconia

Silicon Carbide

sandpapers and their application
Sandpapers And Their Application
  • 36-50 grit is used for damaged material removal, as well as primary shaping and beveling prior to repair procedure
  • 80-120 grit is used for shaping of the repair bevel, primary featheredging
  • 150-180 grit is used for back sanding, final smoothing and featheredging prior to primer surfacer application
  • Fibreglass is made up of three basic ingredients:
    • fibreglas mat
    • resin (polyester or epoxy)
    • catalyst

Reinforcing fabric must

be of loose construction

to allow repair adhesive

to penetrate and ‘wet’

the fabric

types of fibreglass mat
Types of Fibreglass Mat

- The most common fibreglass reinforcement, is made up of randomly arranged glass fibre strands, pressed and held together with a binding agent.

- Available mainly, in three different weights, one, one and half, and two ounces per square foot. Metric equivalents are 300g, 450g, and 600g per square metre, or GSM. - CSM lends itself ideally to most laminating jobs including, boatbuilding, car body, roofing, ponds, etc.


Chopped strand

Continuos strand

woven cloth
Woven Cloth
  • Glass fibre filaments, spun into a yarn then woven to make cloth, provides great strength with minimal thickness, is usually used as an alternate layer between CSM, giving added strength without substantially increasing laminate thickness.

Uni-directional E-glass

Bi-directional E-glass

Woven Roving

new technology
New Technology


Carbon Fiber


Production Application Methods

  • Chopped strand roll

for use with chopper gun


Gel coat

Gel coat is used as a finish coat

To add colour to the product

Is UV protectant

Can be multi colour

Applicator Gun

  • Polyester resin is usually available as a two-component system, with resin in one container and the hardener often known as the catalyst in the other.
  • Some systems use a catalyst and a promoter to activate the resin. It is important to note that these two products should not be mixed together prior to mixing with the resin. Fire or explosion may occur
  • It is important to note that FRP resins cannot be used on SMC repairs!
resins continued
Resins continued...
  • Resin and catalyst (hardener, activator) are mixed by quantity (ounce or milliliter)
  • Rule of thumb: 1 oz. resin requires 10 drops of catalyst to cure correctly
  • Incorrectly measured resin will have adverse effects on the repair

Not following

recommended curing

guidelines can lead to

product failure

Assuming one manufact-

urers procedures will

work for others can be a

costly mistake

Never cure any repair

Above 225° F. Curing

Fibreglass is ideally done

At 140° F for 30-45 minutes


Damage Identification

  • One of the most

critical steps in

assessing damage

to FRP is to note

where the damage


Great care must be

taken to note all

cracks and fractures

are removed


One sided repair materials

- Cleaner

- soap and water

- wax and grease remover

- Repair material

- cosmetic

- panel patching adhesive

- Abrasives

- 36 to 50 grit grinding disc for beveling

- 80-100 grit for featheredging damage

- 120-220 grit for shaping and smoothing



-When beveling the

damaged area, make

sure all of the scratch

or gouge is removed

and the bevel is 2-3”

away from the centre

of repair area and all

paint material is re-

moved from the

immediate area


Follow manufacturers

guidelines as to drying

and recoating times

Always finish imperfec-

tions (pinholes etc) off

with same material or

if acceptable use a high

density cosmetic



Types of two sided damage

- damage that penetrates the panel and breaks the

reinforcing fibres

-large crack



- damage results in pieces missing

-broken or missing pieces



Two sided repair materials


- use recommended



- panel patching





Reinforcing fabric

Appropriate abrasives


Cleaning Fibre reinforced parts

Soap and water

-removes water soluble contaminants

-use a wash mitt or sponge

-rinse thoroughly with water

Wax and Grease remover

-may be needed on heavily contaminated parts

-use of scrub brush may be used

-should not be applied to the damaged area


Plastic cleaner

-Liquid or aerosol

-can be called a “mild” wax and grease remover

-may contain alcohol

-do not apply to the damaged area or broken fibres

Using cleaners

-do not use a solvent soaked rag

-apply solvent to the surface of the panel so as to float

contaminants to the surface

-pour or spray on

-always use clean cloths to wipe solvents

-always wipe in one direction to prevent recurring



Repair procedure

-clean area as to manufacturers recommendations

-on the exterior side of the panel, create a bevel with

appropriate grinding disc, making a gradual taper 1 1/2”

wide, leaving no sharp edges

-remove all loose material

-prepare the back of the

panel by removing any

loose material

-sand the area to re-

ceive the reinforcement


-wipe, then blow the panel



Reinforcing the panel back

-the back of the panel is reinforced to provide strength to

the panel and the repair

-a backing patch can be used

-built up from layers of reinforcement material and

adhesive (pyramid patch)

-made as thick as the panel to be repaired

-backing panel can be used

-cut from scrap SMC or FRP having a similar contour

to the damaged panel


Front reinforcement

-proper reinforcement of the front of the panel will allow

repair to remain hidden through temperature change

-try to copy the amount of reinforcement in the original


-reinforcing strips should be cut according to the position

they assume in the

cavity, from the

smallest to the largest


1. Cut several pieces of

of reinforcing fabric

large enough to overlap

the damaged area by 2”

2. Use as many pieces as

deemed necessary to

duplicate the thickness

of panel to be repaired

3. Lay out a piece of wax

paper or aluminum body

tape larger than the

reinforcement patch will


4. Mix repair adhesive


5. Sketch out the rough dimensions of the patch on the wax

paper or body tape

6. Apply adhesive to the wax paper or body tape to a

uniform thickness is achieved with a plastic spreader

7. Begin laying out reinforcing fabric, applying more adhesive

between each layer to achieve saturation, stopping between

layers to use wax paper and a saturation roller to remove

any air pockets (do not leave wax paper between coats)

8. Alternate this procedure until appropriate layers of cloth

and repair material have been achieved to match thickness

of panel being repaired

9. Apply patch panel, and allow to cure in place, heat may

assist in cure time


A backing panel can

be made of scrap SMC

with a contour match-

ing the panel being



Making a backing panel

1. Cut a piece of SMC which overlaps the damage about

2-3” all around

2. Grind or sand off paint or primers from the front of the

backing panel and wipe or blow off

3. Clean and sand the backside of the panel that will receive

the patch approx.. 3” all around

4. Apply a 1/2” bead of adhesive

all around the edge of the

backing panel

5. Press the backing panel into

place until the adhesive has

100% contact all around

6. Smooth out excess material


Completing the repair using a bridging strip

- A bridging strip is usually needed when sectioning a panel

- Adds reinforcement to

the repair

- Helps minimize shrinking

caused by changes in



Making a patch panel

-patch repair can be

made if a similarly

shape panel is avail-


-uses a square or

rectangle hole

-requires bonding strips


To make a patch repair: 1.clean the damaged part

2.cut out the damaged area keeping the cuts as straight as


3.cut bonding strips about 2” wide and fit them around the hole

4.remove all paint from bonding strips

5.clean and scuff backside of panel where the bonding strips

will be applied

6.apply a 1/2” bead of adhesive to the bonding strips the bonding strips in place with screws or clamps

until adhesive cures

8.cut and fit patch panel, leaving at least 1/2” gap all around

9.clean and scuff sand the back of patch panel

10.apply adhesive to the bonding strips and secure panel into



11. remove the screws

12. use a grinder to make

a 2-3” bevel on either

side of the gap between

the damaged panel and

the patch

13. blow or wipe clean

14. cut enough reinforcing

material to fit into the


15. apply adhesive to the

taper, then lay reinforc-

ing cloth, more adhesive,

more cloth, until height

is achieved. Finish with saturation roller and wax paper