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Feedstuffs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Feedstuffs. According to their origin they can be: Grass and forage crops Roots and tubers Silage Hay, straws Cereal grains and by-products Protein concentrates Feed additives . Grass and forage crops . High water content (70-85%), positive effect on milk production

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  • According to their origin they can be:
    • Grass and forage crops
    • Roots and tubers
    • Silage
    • Hay, straws
    • Cereal grains and by-products
    • Protein concentrates
    • Feed additives
grass and forage crops
Grass and forage crops
  • High water content (70-85%), positive effect on milk production
  • The protein content is species dependent
    • alfalfa 180-280 g/kg d.m.
    • grasses 125-160 g/kg d.m.
    • high NPN content (40-45%)
  • Soluble carbohydrates
    • legumes < grasses < corn
  • Their fibre content changes with the age of plants (15-45%)
  • The digestibility of nutrients is before flowering the highest
grass and forage crops1
Grass and forage crops
  • Low phosphorus (2-3g kg d.m.), but high calcium content (13-15 g/kg d.m.)
  • The level of micro elements soil, rain fall and fertilization dependent
  • Rich in carotenes
  • Except thiamine (B1) and cobalamin (B12) their water soluble vitamin content is sufficient


Cell content

Change in nutrient content of plants with the age


Cell content




Cell wall

Cell wall



  • High protein (170-240 g/kg d.m., high fibre (270-300 g/kg d.m.) Ca, carotene and vitamins, valuable feedstuffs
  • Anti-nutritive factors
    • Saponines (causing bloat)
    • Estrogenic compounds
    • Limited feeding rate

alfalfa (lucerne), clovers

Cereal forages

  • Grown alone or mixed with legumes
  • Limited protein content (60-120 g/kg d.m.)
  • High nitrate accumulation capacity

rye, oats, barley

Brassica forage crops
  • Rich in protein (100-150 g/kg d.m.), soluble carbohydrates and Ca
  • Contain goitrogenic substances (hinders the intake of iodine by the thyroid gland)

kales (brassica oleracea), rapes, cabbage

Sugar beet leaves

  • By-product during harvesting (6-10t/ha)
  • Its crude protein is mostly NPN (betain, glutamic acid)
  • Soil contamination affects the quality
  • High oxalic acid content (5-10%) Ca-oxalate
  • Positive effect on the milk production


  • Should be start to feed before harvesting
  • High energy, low protein content
  • Its better to plant together with legumes (peas, beans, vetches)

Roots and tubers


  • High water content (70-95%)
  • Low fat, mineral and fibre
  • Low protein (5-12% d.m.), mostly NPN
  • The main nutrients are starch or sugar
  • Positive effect on milk production,
  • Difficult to store
  • Before feeding washing, chipping or grinding
  • Anti-nutritive factors
    • solanine (potato)
    • oxalic acid (beet leaves)
  • Turnips
  • Mangels, fodder beet, sugar beet (beta vulgaris)
  • Potatoes
  • Cassava (manioc)
  • Sweet potatoes


  • The name of the container or walls is silo
  • Silage: produced by the fermentation of high moisture crops under anaerobic conditions
  • Lactic acid bacteria ferment the naturally occurring sugars and produce lactic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid
  • During the fermentation process decrease the protein, fat and carotene content of the silage, compared to the raw material
  • High protein, high water low fermentable sugar content can hinder the success of fermentation
  • Additives, containing sugars, bacteria or enzymes can help to produce high quality silage


  • The digestibility of nutrients decrease a bit due to the increase of temperature
  • The quality depends on the chemical composition and age of plants, and the success of fermentation
  • The high organic acid content can decline feed consumption
  • It is used mostly in ruminant nutrition, but good quality silages can be fed also with pigs and horses


  • Haymaking is the traditional method of conserving green crops
  • The success is entirely dependent upon the weather
  • The aim is to reduce the moisture content of green forages to a level (15-20%) that inhibits the action of plant and microbe enzymes
  • Significant feedstuff of ruminants, horse and rabbit
    • supply nutrients
    • due to its high fibre content has a positive effect on the rumen action and the peristaltic movement of the intestine
    • promote saliva secretion


  • Feeding hay results to produce more acetic acid in the rumen, which increase the fat content of milk
  • The good quality hay contains still carotenes, vitamins, minerals and flavour materials
  • The quality depends on the :
    • planting place (mountain, lowland)
    • the botanical composition
    • the age of plants at cutting
    • the success of drying (weather)
  • grass hays , alfalfa hay,cereal hays

Artificially dried forages, grass meals

  • Using high temperature (500-1000oC) for 0.5-2 minutes
  • The temperature and time of drying must be are very carefully controlled, amino acids, vitamins can be damaged
  • Can be used in pig and poultry nutrition after milling in the form of meal or pellet, but their fibre content is still a constraint
  • The protein, vitamin and carotene content of the meals and pellets are higher compared to the hay
  • Mostly high protein containing forages, like alfalfa are used
  • 1st class alfalfa meal should contain not more than 10% water, min. 19% protein and min. 140mg carotene
  • Straws
  • Consist the stem and leaves of plants after the removal of the ripe seeds
  • Produced from most cereal crops and from some legumes
  • High fibre (30-40%), low protein, fat, digestible carbohydrate, vitamin content
  • In Europe only rarely used in nutrition
  • In many tropical and subtropical countries, where the forage production is insufficient, plays as the essential basal food of ruminant livestock(cattle and horse max.:2-3kg/day; sheep: 0,5-1 kg/day)
    • barley, oat, maize, rice (can be used in nutrition)
    • wheat, rye (poor in nutritional value)
    • legume straws (peas, soybean etc.)

Cereal grains

  • Characteristics:
  • Cereal grains are essentially carbohydrate concentrates, the main nutrient is starch (600-700 g/kg d.m.)
  • Their protein content ranges from 80-120g/kg d.m., the protein is deficient in certain essential amino acids, like lysine and methionine
  • The germ contains more oil
  • The lipid content of wheat, barley, rye and oats is 10-30 g/kg, sorghum, maize and oats 30-60g/kg d.m.
  • The fibre content depends on the presence of husks and hulls (barley, oats, rice: 50-200g/kg d.m.). Naked grains contains less fibre (wheat, corn, rye: 23-30g/kg d.m.)
  • High phosphorus content in the aleuronic layer, but it is present as poorly digestible phytic acid

They are good sources of vitamin E and thiamine (B1)

  • Their price is increasing due to the increasing demand on human nutrition and bio fuel production.
  • Hungary has good conditions for producing cereal grains.
    • wheat, rice, barley, oats, rye, maize, triticale, sorghum

Leguminous seeds

  • High protein content (22-43%), which is rich in lysine, deficient mostly in methionine
  • Protein of cereal grains and legume seeds completing each other
  • Their energy content is similar to those of the cereals, except high oil seeds (soybean)
  • High phosphorus content
  • Contain anti-nutritive materials, like cyanogenetic glycosides (beans, lupine seed), undigestible galactosides (beans, peas, soybean) lectins, anti trypsin material (soybean). Some of these materials can be destroyed by heat treatment.
    • soybean, peas, beans, sweet lupine seed

Soybean seed

  • Contains 15-20% oil, 35% high quality protein
  • In raw form it contains protease inhibitors, lectins, allergenic, goitrogenic factors
  • Therefore should be fed after heat treatment (toasting, steam flaking, extracting, hot pelleting etc.)
  • Can be used in the nutrition either in the form of extracted meal or in „full fat” form

Milling by-products

    • bran
      • produced after releasing the bran coat from the endosperm
      • contains mostly the seed coat, the aleurone layer and partly the germ and some parts of the endosperm of the seed
      • Important quality criteria is the amounts of endosperm and aleurone, it determine the protein content of the bran 10-16%
      • their N-free content ranges between 55-60%, the fibre content between 8-14%
      • rich in P, K, Mn és Zn, 50% of phosphorous is bound to phytic acid
      • contains high amounts of some water soluble vitamins
      • can be contaminated by mycotoxins
      • wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize,

fine wheat feed

    • containing less coat and aleurone and more endosperm compared to the bran
    • their energy content is higher, protein and fibre content lower than those of bran
    • can be fed to all classes of animals safely
  • germ
    • rich in protein (26-29%), oil (6-8%), vitamin E, and low in fibre
    • it is separated from the white flour because the high oil content of germ would decrease its warranty period
    • valuable, expensive, used also in the human nutrition
    • wheat, corn,

Oilseed cakes and meals

  • residues remaining after removal of the greater part of the oil from the seed
  • oilseed cakes
    • employing pressure to force out the oil from the seeds
    • its fat content is still determinant (10%)
    • rapeseed , sunflower, soybean, cottonseed
  • extracted meals
    • using organic solvent, usually hexane to dissolve the oil from the seed
    • the process used mostly in the oil industry called extraction
    • they contain high protein (25-40%), and low fat (1-2%).
    • taking out the fat, the palatability of the products decrease
    • removal of the husk lowers the fibre content and improves the digestibility of nutrients
    • soybean, cottonseed, coconut, linseed, rapeseed, groundnut, sunflower, cocoa bean meal

Sugar industry by-products

  • sugar beet pulp
    • after washing, slicing and soaking in water, most of the sugar content is removed, the residue is called sugar beet pulp
    • after pressing its dry matter content increase till 18-20%, its fibre level is about 20%, the protein 10% d.m.
    • positive effect on the milk production
    • cattle can feed 15-25 kg/day, but can be used also in pig and horse nutrition
    • must be used in fresh state, producing silage or dried to a moisture of 10%
    • the dried form of beet pulp must be soaked with water, because of the big water taking capacity
    • after milling can be incorporated into the compound feeds of monogastric animals
  • beet and cane molasses
    • After crystallisation and separation of the sugar from the water extract, a thick black liquid remains
    • About 50% of its dry matter is still sucrose
    • it has laxative effect, so only limited amounts can be used
    • can be used as additive in pelleting (sticking effect)
    • sometimes used as additive of silage making

By-rpoducts of the brewing industry

  • malt culms
    • After soaking and germination of barley (malting process) malt is dried and sprouts are removed
    • during germination starch is converted to maltose and other sugars, can be fermented by the yeasts
    • it has a protein content about 25%, rich in lysine and methionine
    • its fibre content ranges between 10-15%, and can be fed mostly with ruminants and horses
  • brewers grain
    • after the so called mashing process the sugary liquid is taken off and brewers grain is the residue
    • it contains all the nutrients of the malt (fat, fibre, protein) except starch
    • it can be used in wet and dried form
    • mostly cattle feedstuff, cows can given 10-15kg, sheep 0,5-1 kg/day
  • brewers yeast
    • it is the most valuable by-product of this industry
    • after fermentation the yeast is filtered off and dried
    • rich in protein (50%), lysine and water soluble vitamins
    • mostly pig and poultry feedstuff at 3-5% inclusion rates

Starch industry by-products

  • Producing starch mostly potato, manioc and corn are used
  • Raw materials are grinding and the starch will be soaked with dilute acid solution.
  • The germ is removed, it has the similar nutrition value to wheat germ
  • The de-germed grain is than finely ground and the bran is separated by screens.
  • the remaining liquid remains starch and protein (gluten), which are separated by centrifugation
  • gluten
    • by-product of the maize based starch production
    • high protein content (40-50%), its biological value is middle classed
    • can used as colouring material for example in poultry feeds

Animal protein concentrates

  • High protein content and high biological value
  • Used mostly in feeding of young, intensively growing animals
  • Contain highly available Ca and P, vitamin A, D and B12
  • Milk products
  • whole milk
    • used mostly to feed suckled calves, lambs, young dairy and bull calves
    • important human food, expensive, used only rarely in animal nutrition
  • skim milk
    • the residue after the cream has been separated from milk by centrifugation
    • low fat and fat soluble vitamin level
    • the amount of the other nutrients (protein, sugar, minerals are identical to the whole milk
    • valuable feeds with almost 100% digestibility
    • can be fed in a fresh or fermented form
  • whey
    • During the process of cheese making, caseinis precipitated and with it most of the fat and about half of the Ca and P.
    • Its protein content is low (1%), most of its is lactoglobulin, which is a very good quality
    • rich in water soluble vitamins
    • used mostly in the pig nutrition
    • in dried and powdered form can be incorporated into compound diets

Meat by-products, meat meal, meat and bone meal

    • slaughter house by-products and death animals are cooking and pressing the cooked material to remove most of the oil and water. Than it will be dried and grinded.
    • during the heat treatment microbes are killed
    • high protein content (45-62%), high biological value
    • maximal fat content 15%,
    • it is advised to supplement with antioxidants
    • according to the bone content its mineral content can change significantly (in average 10% Ca, 3-5% P)
    • used mostly in the diets of young poultry and pigs at 3-8%
  • Fishmeal
    • produced from whole fish or fish slaughterhouse by-products with the same method as meat meal
    • its quality depends on the species and origin of fish and then ratio of the fish and the by-product
    • higher protein content compared to meat meal (65-75%),
    • valuable source of vitamins, Ca and P
    • the best quality meals contain salt and fat not higher than 2-3 and 10% respectively.
    • feeding at higher ratio cancause fishy taints to the product