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Feedstuffs. According to their origin they can be: Grass and forage crops Roots and tubers Silage Hay, straws Cereal grains and by-products Protein concentrates Feed additives . Grass and forage crops . High water content (70-85%), positive effect on milk production

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feedstuffs
Feedstuffs
  • According to their origin they can be:
    • Grass and forage crops
    • Roots and tubers
    • Silage
    • Hay, straws
    • Cereal grains and by-products
    • Protein concentrates
    • Feed additives
grass and forage crops
Grass and forage crops
  • High water content (70-85%), positive effect on milk production
  • The protein content is species dependent
    • alfalfa 180-280 g/kg d.m.
    • grasses 125-160 g/kg d.m.
    • high NPN content (40-45%)
  • Soluble carbohydrates
    • legumes < grasses < corn
  • Their fibre content changes with the age of plants (15-45%)
  • The digestibility of nutrients is before flowering the highest
grass and forage crops1
Grass and forage crops
  • Low phosphorus (2-3g kg d.m.), but high calcium content (13-15 g/kg d.m.)
  • The level of micro elements soil, rain fall and fertilization dependent
  • Rich in carotenes
  • Except thiamine (B1) and cobalamin (B12) their water soluble vitamin content is sufficient
slide4

proteins

Cell content

Change in nutrient content of plants with the age

lipids

Cell content

sugars

minerlas

hemicellulose

Cell wall

Cell wall

cellulose

lignin

slide5
Legumes
  • High protein (170-240 g/kg d.m., high fibre (270-300 g/kg d.m.) Ca, carotene and vitamins, valuable feedstuffs
  • Anti-nutritive factors
    • Saponines (causing bloat)
    • Estrogenic compounds
    • Limited feeding rate

alfalfa (lucerne), clovers

Cereal forages

  • Grown alone or mixed with legumes
  • Limited protein content (60-120 g/kg d.m.)
  • High nitrate accumulation capacity

rye, oats, barley

slide6
Brassica forage crops
  • Rich in protein (100-150 g/kg d.m.), soluble carbohydrates and Ca
  • Contain goitrogenic substances (hinders the intake of iodine by the thyroid gland)

kales (brassica oleracea), rapes, cabbage

Sugar beet leaves

  • By-product during harvesting (6-10t/ha)
  • Its crude protein is mostly NPN (betain, glutamic acid)
  • Soil contamination affects the quality
  • High oxalic acid content (5-10%) Ca-oxalate
  • Positive effect on the milk production

Sunflower

  • Should be start to feed before harvesting
  • High energy, low protein content
  • Its better to plant together with legumes (peas, beans, vetches)
slide7

Roots and tubers

Characteristics:

  • High water content (70-95%)
  • Low fat, mineral and fibre
  • Low protein (5-12% d.m.), mostly NPN
  • The main nutrients are starch or sugar
  • Positive effect on milk production,
  • Difficult to store
  • Before feeding washing, chipping or grinding
  • Anti-nutritive factors
    • solanine (potato)
    • oxalic acid (beet leaves)
  • Turnips
  • Mangels, fodder beet, sugar beet (beta vulgaris)
  • Potatoes
  • Cassava (manioc)
  • Sweet potatoes
slide8

Silage

  • The name of the container or walls is silo
  • Silage: produced by the fermentation of high moisture crops under anaerobic conditions
  • Lactic acid bacteria ferment the naturally occurring sugars and produce lactic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid
  • During the fermentation process decrease the protein, fat and carotene content of the silage, compared to the raw material
  • High protein, high water low fermentable sugar content can hinder the success of fermentation
  • Additives, containing sugars, bacteria or enzymes can help to produce high quality silage
slide9

Silage

  • The digestibility of nutrients decrease a bit due to the increase of temperature
  • The quality depends on the chemical composition and age of plants, and the success of fermentation
  • The high organic acid content can decline feed consumption
  • It is used mostly in ruminant nutrition, but good quality silages can be fed also with pigs and horses
slide10

Hay

  • Haymaking is the traditional method of conserving green crops
  • The success is entirely dependent upon the weather
  • The aim is to reduce the moisture content of green forages to a level (15-20%) that inhibits the action of plant and microbe enzymes
  • Significant feedstuff of ruminants, horse and rabbit
    • supply nutrients
    • due to its high fibre content has a positive effect on the rumen action and the peristaltic movement of the intestine
    • promote saliva secretion
slide11

Hay

  • Feeding hay results to produce more acetic acid in the rumen, which increase the fat content of milk
  • The good quality hay contains still carotenes, vitamins, minerals and flavour materials
  • The quality depends on the :
    • planting place (mountain, lowland)
    • the botanical composition
    • the age of plants at cutting
    • the success of drying (weather)
  • grass hays , alfalfa hay,cereal hays
slide12

Artificially dried forages, grass meals

  • Using high temperature (500-1000oC) for 0.5-2 minutes
  • The temperature and time of drying must be are very carefully controlled, amino acids, vitamins can be damaged
  • Can be used in pig and poultry nutrition after milling in the form of meal or pellet, but their fibre content is still a constraint
  • The protein, vitamin and carotene content of the meals and pellets are higher compared to the hay
  • Mostly high protein containing forages, like alfalfa are used
  • 1st class alfalfa meal should contain not more than 10% water, min. 19% protein and min. 140mg carotene
  • Straws
  • Consist the stem and leaves of plants after the removal of the ripe seeds
  • Produced from most cereal crops and from some legumes
  • High fibre (30-40%), low protein, fat, digestible carbohydrate, vitamin content
  • In Europe only rarely used in nutrition
  • In many tropical and subtropical countries, where the forage production is insufficient, plays as the essential basal food of ruminant livestock(cattle and horse max.:2-3kg/day; sheep: 0,5-1 kg/day)
    • barley, oat, maize, rice (can be used in nutrition)
    • wheat, rye (poor in nutritional value)
    • legume straws (peas, soybean etc.)
slide13

Cereal grains

  • Characteristics:
  • Cereal grains are essentially carbohydrate concentrates, the main nutrient is starch (600-700 g/kg d.m.)
  • Their protein content ranges from 80-120g/kg d.m., the protein is deficient in certain essential amino acids, like lysine and methionine
  • The germ contains more oil
  • The lipid content of wheat, barley, rye and oats is 10-30 g/kg, sorghum, maize and oats 30-60g/kg d.m.
  • The fibre content depends on the presence of husks and hulls (barley, oats, rice: 50-200g/kg d.m.). Naked grains contains less fibre (wheat, corn, rye: 23-30g/kg d.m.)
  • High phosphorus content in the aleuronic layer, but it is present as poorly digestible phytic acid
slide14

They are good sources of vitamin E and thiamine (B1)

  • Their price is increasing due to the increasing demand on human nutrition and bio fuel production.
  • Hungary has good conditions for producing cereal grains.
    • wheat, rice, barley, oats, rye, maize, triticale, sorghum
slide15

Leguminous seeds

  • High protein content (22-43%), which is rich in lysine, deficient mostly in methionine
  • Protein of cereal grains and legume seeds completing each other
  • Their energy content is similar to those of the cereals, except high oil seeds (soybean)
  • High phosphorus content
  • Contain anti-nutritive materials, like cyanogenetic glycosides (beans, lupine seed), undigestible galactosides (beans, peas, soybean) lectins, anti trypsin material (soybean). Some of these materials can be destroyed by heat treatment.
    • soybean, peas, beans, sweet lupine seed
slide16

Soybean seed

  • Contains 15-20% oil, 35% high quality protein
  • In raw form it contains protease inhibitors, lectins, allergenic, goitrogenic factors
  • Therefore should be fed after heat treatment (toasting, steam flaking, extracting, hot pelleting etc.)
  • Can be used in the nutrition either in the form of extracted meal or in „full fat” form
slide17

Milling by-products

    • bran
      • produced after releasing the bran coat from the endosperm
      • contains mostly the seed coat, the aleurone layer and partly the germ and some parts of the endosperm of the seed
      • Important quality criteria is the amounts of endosperm and aleurone, it determine the protein content of the bran 10-16%
      • their N-free content ranges between 55-60%, the fibre content between 8-14%
      • rich in P, K, Mn és Zn, 50% of phosphorous is bound to phytic acid
      • contains high amounts of some water soluble vitamins
      • can be contaminated by mycotoxins
      • wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize,
slide18

fine wheat feed

    • containing less coat and aleurone and more endosperm compared to the bran
    • their energy content is higher, protein and fibre content lower than those of bran
    • can be fed to all classes of animals safely
  • germ
    • rich in protein (26-29%), oil (6-8%), vitamin E, and low in fibre
    • it is separated from the white flour because the high oil content of germ would decrease its warranty period
    • valuable, expensive, used also in the human nutrition
    • wheat, corn,
slide19

Oilseed cakes and meals

  • residues remaining after removal of the greater part of the oil from the seed
  • oilseed cakes
    • employing pressure to force out the oil from the seeds
    • its fat content is still determinant (10%)
    • rapeseed , sunflower, soybean, cottonseed
  • extracted meals
    • using organic solvent, usually hexane to dissolve the oil from the seed
    • the process used mostly in the oil industry called extraction
    • they contain high protein (25-40%), and low fat (1-2%).
    • taking out the fat, the palatability of the products decrease
    • removal of the husk lowers the fibre content and improves the digestibility of nutrients
    • soybean, cottonseed, coconut, linseed, rapeseed, groundnut, sunflower, cocoa bean meal
slide20

Sugar industry by-products

  • sugar beet pulp
    • after washing, slicing and soaking in water, most of the sugar content is removed, the residue is called sugar beet pulp
    • after pressing its dry matter content increase till 18-20%, its fibre level is about 20%, the protein 10% d.m.
    • positive effect on the milk production
    • cattle can feed 15-25 kg/day, but can be used also in pig and horse nutrition
    • must be used in fresh state, producing silage or dried to a moisture of 10%
    • the dried form of beet pulp must be soaked with water, because of the big water taking capacity
    • after milling can be incorporated into the compound feeds of monogastric animals
  • beet and cane molasses
    • After crystallisation and separation of the sugar from the water extract, a thick black liquid remains
    • About 50% of its dry matter is still sucrose
    • it has laxative effect, so only limited amounts can be used
    • can be used as additive in pelleting (sticking effect)
    • sometimes used as additive of silage making
slide21

By-rpoducts of the brewing industry

  • malt culms
    • After soaking and germination of barley (malting process) malt is dried and sprouts are removed
    • during germination starch is converted to maltose and other sugars, can be fermented by the yeasts
    • it has a protein content about 25%, rich in lysine and methionine
    • its fibre content ranges between 10-15%, and can be fed mostly with ruminants and horses
  • brewers grain
    • after the so called mashing process the sugary liquid is taken off and brewers grain is the residue
    • it contains all the nutrients of the malt (fat, fibre, protein) except starch
    • it can be used in wet and dried form
    • mostly cattle feedstuff, cows can given 10-15kg, sheep 0,5-1 kg/day
  • brewers yeast
    • it is the most valuable by-product of this industry
    • after fermentation the yeast is filtered off and dried
    • rich in protein (50%), lysine and water soluble vitamins
    • mostly pig and poultry feedstuff at 3-5% inclusion rates
slide22

Starch industry by-products

  • Producing starch mostly potato, manioc and corn are used
  • Raw materials are grinding and the starch will be soaked with dilute acid solution.
  • The germ is removed, it has the similar nutrition value to wheat germ
  • The de-germed grain is than finely ground and the bran is separated by screens.
  • the remaining liquid remains starch and protein (gluten), which are separated by centrifugation
  • gluten
    • by-product of the maize based starch production
    • high protein content (40-50%), its biological value is middle classed
    • can used as colouring material for example in poultry feeds
slide23

Animal protein concentrates

  • High protein content and high biological value
  • Used mostly in feeding of young, intensively growing animals
  • Contain highly available Ca and P, vitamin A, D and B12
  • Milk products
  • whole milk
    • used mostly to feed suckled calves, lambs, young dairy and bull calves
    • important human food, expensive, used only rarely in animal nutrition
  • skim milk
    • the residue after the cream has been separated from milk by centrifugation
    • low fat and fat soluble vitamin level
    • the amount of the other nutrients (protein, sugar, minerals are identical to the whole milk
    • valuable feeds with almost 100% digestibility
    • can be fed in a fresh or fermented form
  • whey
    • During the process of cheese making, caseinis precipitated and with it most of the fat and about half of the Ca and P.
    • Its protein content is low (1%), most of its is lactoglobulin, which is a very good quality
    • rich in water soluble vitamins
    • used mostly in the pig nutrition
    • in dried and powdered form can be incorporated into compound diets
slide24

Meat by-products, meat meal, meat and bone meal

    • slaughter house by-products and death animals are cooking and pressing the cooked material to remove most of the oil and water. Than it will be dried and grinded.
    • during the heat treatment microbes are killed
    • high protein content (45-62%), high biological value
    • maximal fat content 15%,
    • it is advised to supplement with antioxidants
    • according to the bone content its mineral content can change significantly (in average 10% Ca, 3-5% P)
    • used mostly in the diets of young poultry and pigs at 3-8%
  • Fishmeal
    • produced from whole fish or fish slaughterhouse by-products with the same method as meat meal
    • its quality depends on the species and origin of fish and then ratio of the fish and the by-product
    • higher protein content compared to meat meal (65-75%),
    • valuable source of vitamins, Ca and P
    • the best quality meals contain salt and fat not higher than 2-3 and 10% respectively.
    • feeding at higher ratio cancause fishy taints to the product