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AROUND ANCIENT BRITAIN.
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Цели урока: 1.Научить учащихся собирать необходимую информацию из различных источников, делать сообщения с выводами, составлять необходимые таблицы.2.Активизировать знания, умения и навыки учащихся по теме «Великобритания».3. Развивать навыки общения, самостоятельной и мыслительной деятельности, умение работы со справочным материалом и мультимедийными средствами.4. Формировать культурно-страноведческую компетенцию учащихся, приобщать к мировой культуре, развивать познавательный интерес.
Traditions Castles Legends ANCIENT BRITAIN Churches Science Government Parliament Monarchy
KNIGHT KING QUEEN CASTLE MONARCHY PARLIAMENT WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR DOMESDAY BOOK LEGENDARY BALLAD THE CEREMONY OF THE KEYS COACH QUEEN`S SPEECH MAYOR MAGNA CARTA CELTIC
The legends of King Arthur began to appear in the XII century and are based on a Celtic leader of the 6lh century who defended his country against Saxon invasion. He was born in Cornwall and brought up by Merlin, an old Celtic magician. Arthur became King of Britain at the age of 15 . He received a magic Sward from the Lady of the Lake. His Knights sat at the round table so, that they were equal. The Knights had feasts, sang ballads and had to kill dragons and giants. They respected honour. The legend said King Arthur died in a Tintagel Monastery which is King Arthur's castle now.
His Knights sat at the round table so, that they were equal. The Knights had feasts, sang ballads and had to kill dragons and giants. They respected honour. The legend said King Arthur died in a Tintagel Monastery which is King Arthur's castle now.
One more legend is about Lady Godiva, a kind and beautiful woman and a wife of Lord Leofric, the ruler of Coventry in 1040. The people of Coventry paid much money to their Lord and Lady Godiva often asked her husband not to take so much money, but he only laughted at her. He agreed only once, but by his words she must ride naked on horse-back through the streets of the town. There are 2 versions of this legend: while doing it she was covered by her long hair and according to the second all people in Coventry shut doors, windows, nobody came out, except Tom, who became blind when he looked out.
Robin Hood is a legendary hero who lived in Sherwood Forest in Nottingham. Stories about his adventures appeared in the 14th century, but it is believed that Robin was born in 1160 at time of many robbers living in the wood. Nobody knows if such a man as Robin Hood really lived. All we know of him comes from ballades. Robin Hood and his Merry Men robbed the rich to give to the poor. He was tall and strong and he can shoot well. The poor people loved him and told many stories about him. A statue of Robin Hood now stands at the foot of Nottingham Castle, Founded in 1068.
The first monument which is closely connected with science is Stonehenge. It is 13 kilometres from Salisbury. It is the biggest stone circle in Europe. The Druids used Stonehenge as a calendar to know when the months and the seasons started. On the 24th of June the Sun shines On the Heel Stone. It is the longest day of the year. On that day we can see Druids festival. It’s a tradition. And this monument was used as an observatory for complex calculations and predictions of movements of sky bodies. So, it was a kind of the first computer!
Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Britain. Oxford University was founded in 1164. It consists of 35 different colleges and 5 “halls”. Cambridge University was founded in 1209. It consists of 31 colleges (28 mixed and 3 for women only). Newton, Byron, Darwin and many other scientists and writers were educated in Cambridge. These Universities are the centres of education and learning.
It was in 1215. The King of England John I was greedy and not a very competent ruler. He raised the taxes. The barons were angry with it and started a revolt. They made the King sign the Magna Carta. It was an agreement between the King and his barons. It limited the King’s power. It was the beginning of the British Parliament. Since then all the English kings have had to ask the barons before they made any important decisions. The Magna Carta proclaimed the power of Law over the free people of the country. It has become the foundation stone of liberty. Four copies of the Magna Carta still exist- two of them are in the British Museum.
On the 14th of October, 1066 darkness fell over the hills of Sussex. On that day the famous battle of Hastings took place. In this battle the last Anglo-Danish king was defeated by a Norman invader, Duke William. Soon William the Conqueror was crowned as William I. The new king brought a new law and a new language. The new king wanted to know all about his country. He ordered his servants to count all the population in England, their houses and castles. Later this information was written in the famous Domesday Book in 1068. This book is the official document in England. The Domesday Book was made for fiscal purposes to increase and protect the power of king.
King Henry VIII was born on July 28, 1491. he was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He was styled the Duke of York. Prince Henry enjoyed music and he was a good musician. At the age of 10 he could play many musical instruments including the fife, harp, viola and drums. He could speak French, Latin, Spanish well. He was intelligent, handsome and athletic. He could shoot very well. His first wife was Catherine of Aragon. They were married for over 20 years but she had no son and Henry divorced her to marry Anne Boleyn. They had a daughter . She became a queen of England in 15 and her name was Mary Bloody. In 1536 Anne Boleyn was arrested beheaded on Tower Hill. Then Henry married Jane Seymour, but she died in 1537. His next wife was Anne of Cleves, but they divorced in a year after their marriage. His fifth wife was Catherine Howard. She was beheaded in 1542. his last wife was Catherine Parr. Henry VIII died on January 28 in 1547.
His first wife was Catherine of Aragon. They were married for over 20 years but she had no son and Henry divorced her to marry Anne Boleyn. They had a daughter . She became a queen of England in 15 and her name was Mary Bloody. In 1536 Anne Boleyn was arrested beheaded on Tower Hill. Then Henry married Jane Seymour, but she died in 1537. His next wife was Anne of Cleves, but they divorced in a year after their marriage. His fifth wife was Catherine Howard. She was beheaded in 1542. his last wife was Catherine Parr. Henry VIII died on January 28 in 1547.
He was a great politician. His interests in foreign policy was focused on Spain, france and the Holy Roman Emperor.He also built the first modern navy and increased its size from 5 to 53 ships. The second half of his reign was dominated by two very important issues: the succession and the Protestant Reformation, which led to the formation of the Church of England. But Henry VIII was not very happy. He wanted to have a son. He married six different women to try and produce a male heir to the throne. But his son died at the age of 14. However, his two daughters both became queens of England.
Britain is a constitutional monarchy. This means that the head of state is the Queen. But in reality she has very little power. The Queen is a symbol of Britain's long history and tradition and her most important function is ceremonial. She represents Britain when she meets other heads of state. Once a week she has a meeting with the Prime Minister. As head of the Commonwealth, she meets and entertains prime ministers of themember states. Every year she speaks on TV on Christmas day. She opens new hospitals, bridges and museums. After disasters, she sends messages to the families of the victims.
Windsor Castle stands on a rock overlooking the river Thames. It was founded by William the Conqueror. It was the residence of all the English kings and queens. Nowadays Windsor Castle is a comfortable country place within an hour’s drive from the capital, where the Royal family can relax.
Westminster Abbey is a royal church. It is more than nine hundred years old. There are a lot of monuments and statues there. Many English kings and queens are buried there. Westminster Abbey is famous for the Poet’s Corner too. Many great writers are buried there: for example: Charles Dickens and Rudyard Kipling.
One of the greatest English churches is St.Paul’s Cathedral. Old St. Paul’s was built in the time of William the Conqueror. The stones for it were brought from Nothern France and it was much taller and wider than it is today. During the reign of King Henry VIII there were a lot of financial problems and it was destroyed. Christopher Wren, final architect of the cathedral, was asked to restore it. He laid the foundation stone for the cathedral in 1675. 35 years later he set the final stone in place. When he died he was buried in his own magnificient building.
Canterbury is a town in Kent. It is the religious capital of England because its cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury who is the head of the church of England.
It was a fortress, a palace, a prison and a king’s zoo. Now it is a museum.
“Halt! Who goes there?” “The Keys.” “Whose Keys?” “Queen Elizabeth’s Keys”. “God preserve Queen Elizabeth”. “Amen!” This words can be heard every night just before 10 o’clock. It’s the Ceremony of the Keys or locking up of the Tower for the night. Five minutes before the hour the Headwarder comes out with a bunch of keys and an old lantern. He closes the 3 outer gates. The Keys are carried to the Queen’s house where they are safe for the night. This ceremony is at least 700 years old.
The Lord Mayor’s Show is a colourful ceremony which has been running for many years . It takes place each November in London and attracts thousands of people.
Traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. But the Parliament, not the Royal Family, controls Britain. The Queen travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage- The Irish State Coach. In the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a throne in the House of Lords. Then she reads the “Queen’s Speech”. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown and the other jewels from the Crown Jewels.