MOTIVATION
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MOTIVATION. THAT WHICH CAUSES. BEHAVIOR TO BEGIN SUSTAINED BEHAVIOR. MOTIVATION. THE REASON(S) FOR. WANTING TO EXPEND EFFORT WANTING TO DO SOMETHING. WHY DO PEOPLE WORK?. MOTIVATED TO DO WHAT?. POINT: NOT EVERYTHING INFLUENCES HIGHER PERFORMANCE. P = ( f ) M X A X S X E.

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MOTIVATION

THAT WHICH CAUSES

  • BEHAVIOR TO BEGIN

  • SUSTAINED BEHAVIOR


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MOTIVATION

THE REASON(S) FOR

  • WANTING TO EXPEND EFFORT

  • WANTING TO DO SOMETHING


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WHY DO PEOPLE WORK?

MOTIVATED TO DO WHAT?

POINT: NOT EVERYTHING INFLUENCES

HIGHER PERFORMANCE.


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P = (f) MX A X S X E

M = MOTIVATION

A = ABILITY

S = SUPPORT (TOOLS, ASSISTANCE, RESOURCES)

E = EXTERNAL CONDITIONS


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ALWAYS WANT TO

INCREASE

PERFORMANCE?


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MAY NOT WORK

  • MACHINE PACED

  • IN ASSEMBLY LINE

  • PERISHABLE/FASHION PROD.

  • TOO MUCH INVENTORY


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Hierarchy of Needs

Self

Actualization

Esteem

Affiliation

Security

Physiological

A.H. Maslow


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2 Factor Theory

Satisfaction

- Motivator Factors +

Dissatisfaction

- Hygiene Factors +

F. Herzberg


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2 Factor Theory

% Negative % Positive

- 8 ACHIEVEMENT +43

-15 RECOGNITION +35

-12 WORK ITSELF +28

- 8 RESPONSIBILITY+25

-11ADVANCEMENT +21

-37 COMPANY POLICY + 5

& ADMIN

-21 SUPERVISION + 5

-19 SALARY +17

-17 INTERPERSONAL REL. + 4

-13 WORKING COND. + 3

F. Herzberg


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Acquired Needs Theory

Learn Needs

  • Childhood literature

  • Role models

  • Experiences

McClelland


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Need for Achievement

(nach)

  • Drive to excel

  • Prefer challenging but

  • achievable goals

  • Too challenging = won’t succeed

  • Not challenging = no sense of achievement


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(nach)

Achievers prefer jobs that offer

  • Personal responsibility

  • Feedback

  • Moderate risk


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Need for power

(npow)

  • Control environment

  • Influence people

  • Prefer

  • - being in charge

  • - competition

  • - status oriented situations


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Need for affiliation

(naff)

  • Friendly, close relationships

  • Prefer situations

  • - cooperative

  • - mutual understanding


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Goal Setting as Motivator

  • Specific, not general

  • Difficult, high

  • - coaching

  • - encourage

  • - support

  • Set by manager

  • - accepted?

-------

And nach? 10-20% people in U.S. are high nach


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Expectancy Theory

Perceived

Equity

Abilities

Intrinsic

Rewards

Value of

Rewards

Satisfaction

Performance

Effort

Extrinsic

Rewards

Role

Perceptions

Perceived

Effort - Reward

Probability

Adapted from L. Porter & E. Lawler (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance, Irwin, p. 165.


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Equity Theory

A’s perceptions of:

Outcomes A = Outcomes B

Inputs A Inputs B


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If Inequity Perceived:

1. Change real inputs, outcomes (I, O).

2. Change perception of I, O.

3. Change others’ I, O.

4. Change perception of others’ I, O.

5. Change referent(s).

6. Leave situation.


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Studies - inequitable pay:

(Compared to equitably paid employees)

  • PERCEPTION = OVER-REWARDED

    • Time based pay: produce more

  • (quantity and quality)

    • Quantity based pay: reduce quantity*,

  • increase quality

*Assumption: trade-off between quantity and quality


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Studies - inequitable pay:

(Compared to equitably paid employees)

  • PERCEPTION - UNDER-REWARDED

  • Time based pay: produce less

    • or poorer quality

  • Quantity based pay: increase quantity,

    • reduce quality

*Assumption: trade-off between quantity and quality


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Reinforcement Theory

Stimulus Response Consequence

(need)

Learn from consequence to repeat

or not repeat the behavior


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Reinforcement Theory

Law of Effect: The greater the satisfaction, or

dissatisfaction, with consequence,

the stronger the stimulus to

behavior link (stronger learning).


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Reinforcement Theory

Law of Contiguity: Tie consequence directly

to behavior.

Law of Immediacy: Administer consequence

immediately.


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Reinforcement Theory

Positive Reinforcement: Positive consequences

following behavior (reward)

Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance Learning):

Remove negative consequence following

behavior (don’t get stopped if don’t speed)

Punishment: Negative consequence following behavior

Extinction: Withhold positive consequence after behavior

(fail to meet goal, no reward)


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Schedules of Reinforcement

ScheduleForm of InfluenceIf WithdrawnExample


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Reinforcement Theory

  • Shaping Behavior:

  • Teaching new behavior

  • Reward “successive approximations”

  • - reward “attempts” early stages

  • - reward often, early stages

  • ------------

  • Same as: Coaching, modeling, teaching….


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Guides for Positive Reinforcement

1. Clearly describe goal, target behavior.

2. If overall is complex chain of behaviors, divide into

observable, measurable sequence of steps.

3. Make sure person has skill, ability to accomplish

behavior.

4. Select rewards based on person’s needs.

5. Arrange setting to encourage desired behavior.

6. Reward close approximations, in shaping stage.

7. Reward desired behavior immediately.


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Guides for Punishment

1. Tell person what is wrong.

2. Tell person what correct behavior is.

3. Follow laws of contingent, immediate reinforcement.

Punish only improper behavior immediately.

4. Make punishment match behavior. Magnitude of

punishment = to degree of undesirable behavior.

5. Punish in private.


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“HOT STOVE” RULE

  • IMMEDIACY

  • ADVANCE WARNING

  • CONSISTENCY

  • IMPERSONAL


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Possible Negative Side-effects of Punishment

1. If administered poorly, may cause frustration,

humiliation, alienation…

2. Threat of punishment may highlight what not to do.

3. Does stop unwanted behavior. By itself, does not

provide corrections.

4. Vulnerable to error of over-generalization.

5. Does not encourage internalized behavior; i.e.

Threat must always be present.

6. May encourage people to respond in kind.


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  • SHOULD PUNISHMENT BE USED AT ALL?

  • DOES (CAN) STOP UNWANTED BEHAVIOR.

  • IF UNWANTED BEHAVIOR IS INTENTIONAL

    • KNEW IT WAS WRONG

    • DID IT ANYWAY

  • PUNISH UNINTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR?

    • FRUSTRATION

    • NEGATIVE STRESS


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COMPETITION as Motivator

  • High interdependent tasks, compete for rewards:

  • productivity decreases

  • Low interdependent tasks, compete for rewards:

  • slight increase in productivity

(Miller & Hamblin (1971). “Interdependence, differential rewarding, and productivity” in B. Hinton & J. Reitz Groups and Organizations.)


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JOB ENRICHMENT

as Motivator

  • EVERYONE WANT MORE AUTHORITY,

    • RESPONSIBILITY?

  • SAME AS EMPOWERMENT?


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