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  1. Boundless Lecture Slides Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  2. Using Boundless Presentations Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: • The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. http://boundless.com/teaching-platform • Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. If you have any questions or problems please email: educators@boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  3. About Boundless • Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  4. Principles of Epidemiology Epidemiology Pathogen Identification Disease Patterns Nosocomial Infections ] Epidemiology and Public Health Epidemiology Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  5. Epidemiology > Principles of Epidemiology Principles of Epidemiology • History of Epidemiology • The Science of Epidemiology • The Vocabulary Epidemiology • Koch's Postulates • Exceptions to Koch's Postulates Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/epidemiology-10/principles-of-epidemiology-130/

  6. Epidemiology > Pathogen Identification Pathogen Identification • Occurrence of a Disease • Disease Severity and Duration • Extent of Host Involvement • Identification of Microbes Based on Molecular Genetics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/epidemiology-10/pathogen-identification-131/

  7. Epidemiology > Disease Patterns Disease Patterns • Predisposing Factors • Disease Development • Disease Reservoirs and Epidemics • Infectious Disease Transmission • Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Pathogens • Safety in the Microbiology Laboratory • Finding Patient Zero and Tracking Diseases Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/epidemiology-10/disease-patterns-132/

  8. Epidemiology > Nosocomial Infections Nosocomial Infections • Microorganisms in the Hospital • Compromised Host • Chain of Transmission • Control of Nosocomial Infections Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/epidemiology-10/nosocomial-infections-133/

  9. Epidemiology > Epidemiology and Public Health Epidemiology and Public Health • Descriptive Epidemiology • Analytical Epidemiology • Experimental Epidemiology • Public Health Measures for Disease Control • Global Health • Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases • Biological Weapons • Technology and New Infectious Agents • Current Epidemics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/epidemiology-10/epidemiology-and-public-health-134/

  10. Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  11. Epidemiology Key terms • "Patient Zero"A term used to refer to the index case in the spread of HIV in North America. • aerosolizedDispersed as an aerosol; particulate. • analyticalpertaining to or emanating from analysis. • asymptomaticnot exhibiting any symptoms of disease. • biohazardsBiological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, especially humans. • Biological warfareBiological warfare (BW) — also known as germ warfare — is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals, or plants as an act of war. • causalA cause of something; causing. • Chronic granulomatous diseaseAlso known as CGD, is a diverse group of genetic diseases in which certain cells of the immune system have difficulty forming the reactive oxygen compounds (most importantly, the superoxide radical) used to kill certain ingested pathogens. This leads to the formation of granulomata (a special type of inflammation) in many organs. • clinical latencyThe period for which an infection is subclinical. • common source outbreaka type of epidemic outbreak where the affected individuals had an exposure to a common agent. • cystic fibrosisCystic fibrosis (also known as CF or mucoviscidosis) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects most critically the lungs, and also the pancreas, liver and intestine. It is characterized by abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across an epithelium, leading to thick, viscous secretions. • defenseThe action of defending or protecting from attack, danger, or injury. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  12. Epidemiology • durationan amount of time or a particular time interval • ecological competenceThe ability of an organism, often a pathogen, to survive and compete in new habitats. • emerging infectious diseaseAn emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease with an incidence rate that has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. • endemic(Especially of diseases. ) Prevalent in a particular area or region. • epidemicA widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. • epidemicA widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. • epidemicA widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. • epidemiologistA scientist (often a medical doctor) who specializes in epidemiology. • epidemiologyThe branch of a science dealing with the spread and control of diseases, computer viruses, concepts, etc., throughout populations or systems. • epidemiologyEpidemiology is the study (or the science of the study) of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. • epidemiologyThe branch of a science dealing with the spread and control of diseases, computer viruses, concepts, etc., throughout populations or systems. • epidemiologyEpidemiology is the study (or the science of the study) of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  13. Epidemiology • epidemiologyThe branch of a science dealing with the spread and control of diseases, computer viruses, concepts, etc., throughout populations or systems. • epidemiologyThe branch of a science dealing with the spread and control of diseases, computer viruses, concepts, etc., throughout populations or systems. • ExperimentalAn experiment is a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. • fomiteAn inanimate object capable of carrying infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses and parasites), and thus passively enabling their transmission between hosts. • geneticRelating to genetics or genes. • geneticsthe branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular chromosomes and DNA • healthThe state of being free from physical or psychological disease, illness, or malfunction; wellness. • hostA cell or organism which harbors another organism or biological entity, usually a parasite. • hygieneThose conditions and practices that promote and preserve health. • immunitythe state of being insusceptible to a specific thing. • infectionAn uncontrolled growth of harmful microorganisms in a host. • infectiousInfectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence, and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  14. Epidemiology • infectiousInfectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence, and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. • InvasiveInvasive species, also called invasive exotics or simply exotics, is a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native habitats, with several definitions. • Koch's postulatesfour criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease • microorganismsA microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular), cell clusters, or multicellular relatively complex organisms. • MRSAMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It is also called multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). • nationsA nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history. In this definition, a nation has no physical borders. • nosocomialcontracted in a hospital, or arising from hospital treatment • nosocomialA nosocomial infection, also known as a hospital-acquired infection or HAI, is an infection whose development is favoured by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff. • nosocomial infectionan infection whose development is favoured by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff • nucleic acidAny acidic, chainlike biological macromolecule consisting of repeating units of phosphoric acid, sugar, and purine and pyrimidine bases; they are involved in the preservation, replication, and expression of hereditary information in every living cell. • outbreakA term used in epidemiology to describe an occurrence of disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time and place. • pandemicA disease that hits a wide geographical area and affects a large proportion of the population. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  15. Epidemiology • pandemicA disease that hits a wide geographical area and affects a large proportion of the population. • pathogenAny organism or substance, especially a microorganism, capable of causing disease, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi. Microorganisms are not considered to be pathogenic until they have reached a population size that is large enough to cause disease. • pathogensA pathogen or infectious agent (colloquially known as a germ) is a microorganism (in the widest sense, such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in its host. The host may be an animal (including humans), a plant, or even another microorganism. • pathogensA pathogen or infectious agent (colloquially known as a germ) is a microorganism (in the widest sense, such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in its host. The host may be an animal (including humans), a plant, or even another microorganism. • pneumoniaAn acute or chronic inflammation of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria or other microorganisms, or sometimes by physical or chemical irritants. • populationA collection of organisms of a particular species, sharing a particular characteristic of interest, most often that of living in a given area. • populationsA population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. • postulateA fundamental element; a basic principle. • propagated outbreaka type of epidemic outbreak where the disease spreads person-to-person. Affected individuals may become independent reservoirs leading to further exposures. • psychochemical weaponAgents used within the context of military aggression. • risk factorA variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. • sanitationThe policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  16. Epidemiology • severitythe degree of something undesirable; badness or seriousness. • socioeconomicOf or pertaining to social and economic factors. • speciesIn biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. • statisticalof or pertaining to statistics • sterilizationAny process that eliminates or kills all forms of microbial life present on a surface, solution, or solid compound. • subclinicalOf a disease or injury, without signs and symptoms that are detectable by physical examination or laboratory test; not clinically manifest. • susceptiblelikely to be affected by something; here, sensitive to growth inhibition by an antimicrobial drug. • transmissionTransmission is the passing of a communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a conspecific individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected. • vaccinationinoculation with a vaccine in order to protect a particular disease or strain of disease. • vectorA carrier of a disease-causing agent. • viral latencyA form of viral dormancy in which the virus does not replicate at all. • virulenceThe degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host and it is determined by virulence factors. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  17. Epidemiology • virulentHighly infectious, malignant, or deadly. • zoonoseInfectious diseases transmitted between different species of animals, usually from a vertebrate animal to a human Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  18. Epidemiology Reserve genetics Avian flu vaccine development by reverse genetics technique. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia.Public domainhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/ReverseGeneticsFlu.svgView on Boundless.com

  19. Epidemiology Influenza TEM of negatively stained influenza virions, magnified approximately 100,000 times. Modern transport contributes in spreading diseases faster. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia.Public domainhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/EM_of_influenza_virus.jpgView on Boundless.com

  20. Epidemiology Influenza TEM of negatively stained influenza virions, magnified approximately 100,000 times. Modern transport contributes in spreading diseases faster. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia.Public domainhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/EM_of_influenza_virus.jpgView on Boundless.com

  21. Epidemiology Robert Koch Robert Koch circa 1900. Koch's postulates are four criteria designed in the 1880's to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Robert Koch BeW."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Robert_Koch_BeW.jpgView on Boundless.com

  22. Epidemiology Early epidemiology Original map by John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854. John Snow's investigative work was one of the first examples of epidemiology. He discovered that families that drew their water from the Broad St well became infected with cholera. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia Commons."London epidemic of 1854."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiology%23mediaviewer/File:Snow-cholera-map.jpgView on Boundless.com

  23. Epidemiology Coronaviruses Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that have a halo, or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under an electron microscope. If you have a cold 10-15% of the time it is caused by a virus like this. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Coronaviruses 004 lores."Public domainhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coronaviruses_004_lores.jpgView on Boundless.com

  24. Epidemiology Resistant bacterial strain Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."MRSA SEM 9994 lores."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MRSA_SEM_9994_lores.jpgView on Boundless.com

  25. Epidemiology 1918 Flu Victims With masks over their faces, members of the American Red Cross remove a victim of the Spanish Flu from a house at Etzel and Page Avenues, St. Louis, Missouri. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."1918FluVictimsStLouis."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1918FluVictimsStLouis.jpgView on Boundless.com

  26. Epidemiology Cholera bacteria Scanning electron microscope image of Vibrio cholerae bacteria, which infect the digestive system. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Cholera bacteria SEM."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cholera_bacteria_SEM.jpgView on Boundless.com

  27. Epidemiology Flag of the World Health Organization This is the flag of the World Health Organization. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."World Health Organization."GNU FDLhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_OrganizationView on Boundless.com

  28. Epidemiology Hand Cleaning Station A hand cleaning station at the entrance of the Toronto General Hospital Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Hand washing."GNU FDLhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_washingView on Boundless.com

  29. Epidemiology Washing Hands Washing hands with soap and clean water (for at least 20 seconds) is the most effective measure to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."OCD handwash."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OCD_handwash.jpgView on Boundless.com

  30. Epidemiology Biohazard symbol The international symbol used to label biohazards. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Biohazard symbol."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biohazard_symbol.svgView on Boundless.com

  31. Epidemiology Typhoid Mary poster Typhoid carrier. Food pollution. "In this manner the famous 'Typhoid Mary' infected family after family. " Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Typhoid carrier polluting food - a poster."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Typhoid_carrier_polluting_food_-_a_poster.jpgView on Boundless.com

  32. Epidemiology Hand washing with soap Handwashing is the single most important measure to reduce the risks of transmitting skin microorganisms from one person to another or from one site to another on the same patient. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Cuci tangan pakai sabun."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cuci_tangan_pakai_sabun.jpgView on Boundless.com

  33. Epidemiology Surgical drain Surgical drain on the left hand after surgery of Bennet's fracture basis MTC primi manus 1. sin (S62.20) which was treated by alignment of a fracture and inside fixation by two titanium screws MS. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Hand with drain after surgery (2)."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hand_with_drain_after_surgery_(2).jpgView on Boundless.com

  34. Epidemiology Cross-transmission Contaminated surfaces increase cross-transmission. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Contaminated surfaces increase cross-transmission."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Contaminated_surfaces_increase_cross-transmission.jpgView on Boundless.com

  35. Epidemiology This is the flag of the World Health Organization. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Flag of WHO."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_WHO.svgView on Boundless.com

  36. Epidemiology The Black Death of the 14th century An animation of the plague that spread through the world during the pandemic in the 14th century. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Spread-Of-The-Black-Death."CC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spread-Of-The-Black-Death.gifView on Boundless.com

  37. Epidemiology London Cholera Map This map shows cases of cholera clustered around the location of water pumps. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Epidemiology."Public domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EpidemiologyView on Boundless.com

  38. Epidemiology Snow cholera map A variant of the original map drawn by Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), a British physician who is one of the founders of medical epidemiology, showing cases of cholera in the London epidemics of 1854, clustered around the locations of water pumps. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Snow-cholera-map."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-cholera-map.jpgView on Boundless.com

  39. Epidemiology Cholera Outbreak The outdated public health advice demonstrates the lack of understanding of the disease and its actual causative factors in the absence of epidemiological analysis. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Cholera 395.1."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cholera_395.1.jpgView on Boundless.com

  40. Epidemiology Symptoms of tuberculosis Some of the symptoms are very specific for the disease while others are more general and can be caused by other pathogens. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Tuberculosis symptoms."CC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tuberculosis_symptoms.pngView on Boundless.com

  41. Epidemiology Clostridium tetani Clostridium tetani are pathogenic bacteria. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Clostridium tetani2."CC BYhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clostridium_tetani2.JPGView on Boundless.com

  42. Epidemiology Mary Mallon Mary Mallon (1870-1938) was nicknamed "Typhoid Mary," an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever. She worked as a cook for several families in New York City at the beginning of the 20th century and infected many of them with typhoid. Note that in this 1909 newspaper illustration, she casts skulls into the skillet. However, this drawing inaccurately depicts the spread of typhoid, which was not by breathing, but by direct contamination from fecal particles. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Mallon-Mary 01."Public domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mallon-Mary_01.jpgView on Boundless.com

  43. Epidemiology Global map of Seasonal Influenza Seasonal risk areas: November–April (blue), April–November (red), and year-round (yellow) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."Influenza Seasonal Risk Areas."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Influenza_Seasonal_Risk_Areas.svgView on Boundless.com

  44. Epidemiology BSL-4 hazmat suit A researcher in a protective suit working with the Ebola virus. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Biosafety level 4 hazmat suit."Public domainhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Biosafety_level_4_hazmat_suit.jpgView on Boundless.com

  45. Epidemiology Spread of H1N1 in Europe, 2009 The World Health Organization declared the new flu strain H1N1 as a pandemic in June 2009. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia."Spread of Swine Flu in Europe."CC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spread_of_Swine_Flu_in_Europe.svgView on Boundless.com

  46. Epidemiology Biological Bomblet The E120 biological bomblet was one of a number of spherical biological bomblets that were developed before the United States discontinued its offensive program in the 1970s. The vaned outer shell of this spherical bomblet was designed to provide rotation during flight. On impact, the outer shell would shatter; the bomblet was asymmetrically weighted so that agent would then be sprayed from the top of the bomblet. The E120 bomblet was developed in the early 1960s. Its 11.4 cm diameter carried 0.1 kg of liquid biological agent. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."E120 biological bomblet cutaway."CC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E120_biological_bomblet_cutaway.jpgView on Boundless.com

  47. Epidemiology World map of people living with HIV/AIDS This map captures the estimated number of people in the world living with HIV/AIDS in 2008. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia."People living with HIV AIDS world map."CC BY-SAhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:People_living_with_HIV_AIDS_world_map.PNGView on Boundless.com

  48. Epidemiology Attribution • Wikipedia."Koch's postulates."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch's_postulates • Wiktionary."asymptomatic."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/asymptomatic • Wikipedia."Epidemiology."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiology • Wikipedia."risk factor."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/risk%20factor • Wiktionary."socioeconomic."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/socioeconomic • Wiktionary."epidemiology."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/epidemiology • Wikipedia."Nosocomial."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosocomial • Wiktionary."infection."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/infection • Wiktionary."defense."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/defense • Wiktionary."Invasive."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Invasive • Wikipedia."psychochemical weapon."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/psychochemical%20weapon • Wikipedia."Biological weapons."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_weapons • Wikipedia."Biological warfare."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological%20warfare • Wikipedia."Nosocomial."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosocomial • Wikipedia."sterilization."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sterilization • Wiktionary."sanitation."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sanitation • Wiktionary."nosocomial."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nosocomial Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

  49. Epidemiology • Wiktionary."causal."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/causal • Wikipedia."Epidemiology."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiology • Wiktionary."epidemiologist."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/epidemiologist • Wikipedia."Koch's postulates."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch's_postulates • Wikipedia."Koch's postulates."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch's_postulates • Wiktionary."postulate."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/postulate • Wikipedia."Koch's postulates."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch's_postulates • Wikipedia."Molecular Koch's postulates."CC BY-SA 3.0https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_Koch's_postulates • Wiktionary."virulent."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/virulent • Wiktionary."nucleic acid."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nucleic_acid • Wiktionary."genetic."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetic • Wiktionary."genetics."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetics • Wikipedia."Infectious disease."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease%23Emerging_diseases • Wiktionary."infectious."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/infectious • Wikipedia."pathogens."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pathogens • Wikipedia."West Nile virus."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_virus • Wikipedia."Tuberculosis."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis • Wikipedia."AIDS."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS • Wikipedia."Emerging infectious disease."CC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerging_infectious_disease Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com

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