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Current Economic Conditions and How They Affect My District Illinois ASBO Annual Conference. Tammie Beckwith Schallmo , Vice President, Managing Director, Public Finance Audra Hartman , Vice President May 18, 2011. Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™. 1.

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Current Economic Conditions and How They Affect My District

Illinois ASBO Annual Conference

Tammie Beckwith Schallmo, Vice President, Managing Director, Public Finance

Audra Hartman, Vice President

May 18, 2011

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


An Overview: How the Economy impacts State, Local and Federal Revenue for Illinois School Districts

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions state local and federal revenue
Current Economic Conditions| State, Local and Federal Revenue

State, Local and Federal Revenue

  • Local Revenues
    • Mostly local property taxes
    • Corporate Personal Property Replacement Tax (CPPRT)
    • Tuition, interest income, fees, rentals
  • State Revenues
    • General State Aid
    • Categorical Grants
  • Federal Revenues
    • Categorical Grants
    • Grants

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions state local and federal revenue1
Current Economic Conditions | State, Local and Federal Revenue

State, Local and Federal Revenue for Illinois School Districts

  • Percentage of Local Revenue has increased over time
  • While the State share has decreased
  • And the Fed’s share has increased slightly

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions local revenue property taxes
Current Economic Conditions | Local Revenue – Property Taxes

Local Revenue – Property Taxes

  • Economic boom in the 1990s and into the 2000s
    • As property values increased, property taxes increased, and state revenues decreased
      • General State Aid formula’s key variables
        • Attendance
        • Property tax wealth per student
  • We are now seeing the impact of lower housing prices, which has translated into lower EAVs, and the 2.70% CPI on 2010 property tax bills

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions other local revenue
Current Economic Conditions | Other Local Revenue

Other Local Revenue

  • As the economy has been hit, so have other local revenue sources for school districts
    • Investment income
    • Rentals
  • In some districts, fee revenue has increased in an attempt to offset other revenue losses

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions state revenue cpprt
Current Economic Conditions | State Revenue - CPPRT

State Revenue - CPPRT

  • Collected from Illinois corporations
  • Distributed to local government units
  • Payment in lieu of taxes
  • Allocation factors date back to program’s inception
  • Collections depend on Illinois business economy
    • For fiscal year 2011, total CPPRT allocations for Illinois school districts increased by 21.5% over the prior year
    • Per the Illinois Department of Revenue’s website, the increase is due to amnesty legislation and “an improving economy”
  • Impacts General State Aid revenue for a district
    • Fewer CPPRT dollars, increased GSA

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions state revenue categorical grants
Current Economic Conditions | State Revenue – Categorical Grants

State Revenue - Categorical Grants

  • Originated to encourage districts to offer certain programs (eg: special education, bilingual, transportation, lunch and breakfast programs)
  • Entitlement grants (not competitive)
  • Funding levels vary in the ISBE budget from year to year
    • Number of children in need of services
    • Health of state economy
  • Statutes specify levels of payment
  • But actual appropriations are made annually by the legislature
    • “Zero funding” is possible
  • “Prorated” funding developed over time as program costs began to exceed appropriated levels

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions state revenue categorical grants1
Current Economic Conditions | State Revenue – Categorical Grants

State Revenue - Categorical Grants

  • The State has been behind on Categorical payments
    • Caught up on fiscal year 2010 payments
    • Districts are owed three payments for fiscal year 2011
  • Impacts many districts’ cash flow position
    • Additional credit concern for Districts who rely heavily on the state
    • Short-term borrowing may be more difficult to achieve, as well as more costly
  • How long will the state need to borrow to make payments to districts?
  • How is your district budgeting for Categorical grants?
    • Rating agencies are especially interested

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions federal revenue
Current Economic Conditions | Federal Revenue

Federal Revenue

  • Largely tied to programs that support national educational goals and student achievement
  • Often competitive grants
  • What happens when the grant is gone?
  • ARRA dollars
    • Supplement, not supplant
    • It was a short-term fix

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


The Consumer Price Index

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions what is the consumer price index
Current Economic Conditions | What is the Consumer Price Index

What is the Consumer Price Index?

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.
  • The CPI reflects spending patterns for each of two population groups: all urban consumers (CPI-U) and urban wage earners and clerical workers (CPI-W).
    • The CPI-U represents about 87% of the total U.S. population.
    • The CPI-U (unseasonal adjusted) is used to determine the limiting rate

Source: The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions what is the consumer price index1
Current Economic Conditions | What is the Consumer Price Index?

What is the Consumer Price Index?

  • The CPI market basket is developed from detailed expenditure information provided by families and individuals on what they actually bought.
  • For the current CPI, this information was collected from the Consumer Expenditure Surveys for 2005 and 2006.
    • About 7,000 families from around the country provided information each quarter on their spending habits in the interview survey.
    • To collect information on frequently purchased items, such as food and personal care products, another 7,000 families in each of these years kept diaries listing everything they bought during a 2-week period.
  • Over the 2 year period, then, expenditure information came from approximately 28,000 weekly diaries and 60,000 quarterly interviews used to determine the importance, or weight, of the more than 200 item categories in the CPI index structure.

Source: The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions cpi december 1 2007 to december 1 2008
Current Economic Conditions | CPI: December 1, 2007 to December 1, 2008

Source: The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions cpi january 1 2009 to present year over year
Current Economic Conditions | CPI: January 1, 2009 to Present Year Over Year

Source: The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


Economic Update

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions qe2
Current Economic Conditions | QE2

Quantitative Easing 2

  • The Fed has been buying $600 billion in long-term Treasuries, and has been reinvesting an additional $250 billion to $300 billion in Treasuries with the proceeds of its earlier investments
  • The FED has announced that it will complete its purchases by June 30
  • Interest rates declined, inflation expectations have risen, the dollar has depreciated and equity prices have risen – all “classic” financial market effects anticipated

Source: CNN Money, November 3, 2010

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions housing market
Current Economic Conditions | Housing Market

Housing Market

  • As of February, U.S. home prices were just above the lows of April 2009
    • 7th straight month of declines
  • Housing values are down 32% from peak in May 2006
  • Distressed sales now account for 30% of all transactions nationwide
  • For housing prices to rise, the economy must continue to improve, as well as job growth
  • Continued declines in the housing market will have a negative impact on EAV
  • Excess supply versus lower buyer confidence

Source: Standard and Poor’s Case-Shiller Index

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions unemployment
Current Economic Conditions | Unemployment


  • The national unemployment rate is nearly 1% lower than it was in November 2010
  • U.S. unemployment was 8.8% for March and crept back up to 9.0% in April

Source: The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions job creation
Current Economic Conditions | Job Creation

Job Creation

  • U.S. jobs were created at the fastest pace in five years in April
    • Nonfarm payrolls increased by 244,000, the largest increase in 11 months
    • Third straight month the economy added more than 200,000 jobs
    • Manufacturing jobs continue to trend up
    • Local government has lost 416,000 jobs since September 2008
  • Since February 2010, total payroll employment has risen by 1.8 million
  • 4.3 people for every job, lower than the 6.9 to 1 ratio in July 2009
  • Bottomline…labor market conditions have improved, but there are still 13.7 million Americans out of work
  • Will job creation accelerate for the remainder of 2011?

Source: The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions uncertainty
Current Economic Conditions | Uncertainty

It’s Still a Time of Uncertainty

  • The U. S economy will continue to recover, but not as quickly as we have hoped
  • Uncertainties remain
    • Jobs
    • Housing
    • Oil and food prices
    • The country’s federal deficit
    • European sovereign debt crisis
    • Other bumps along the road, such as the earthquake and tsunami in Japan

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions components of economic indicator indices
Current Economic Conditions | Components of Economic Indicator Indices

Components of Economic Indicator Indices

  • Components of Leading Economic Indicators
    • Real money supply, interest rate spread, the index of consumer expectations, building permits, stock prices, index of supplier deliveries (vendor performance), average weekly manufacturing hours, average weekly initial claims for unemployment insurance (inverted), and manufacturers’ new orders for nondefense capital goods, and Manufacturers’ new orders for consumer goods and materials.
  • Components of Coincident Economic Indicators
    • Personal income less transfer payments, manufacturing and trade sales, employees on nonagricultural payrolls, and industrial production.
  • Components of Lagging Economic Indicators
    • Ratio of consumer installment credit to personal income, commercial and industrial loans outstanding, change in labor cost per unit of output, average duration of unemployment (inverted), average prime rate charged by banks, ratio of manufacturing and trade inventories to sales, and change in CPI for services.

Source: The Conference Board

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions current readings of economic indicators
Current Economic Conditions | Current Readings of Economic Indicators

Current Readings of Economic Indicators

  • The Conference Board Leading Economic Index for the U.S. increased 0.4% in March
    • Upward trend since the end of 2008
  • The Conference Board Coincident Economic Index increased 0.2% in March
    • Still 4.3% below its level at the beginning of the recession
  • The Conference Board Lagging Economic Index increased 0.4% in March, following a 0.4% decrease in January and a 0.3% increase in February

Source: The Conference Board

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions statistics to watch
Current Economic Conditions | Statistics to Watch

Statistics to Watch

  • Consumer Sentiment (67.8 in April versus 65.5 in March and 75.5 in February; recessionary levels are in the 50s)
  • Consumer Spending (increased 0.6% in March, consensus was 0.5% increase, 9th straight month of increases)
  • Retail Sales (Retail sales increased 0.5% in April, 0.6% consensus, ninth straight month of increases)
  • Personal Income (increased by 0.5% in March, 0.4% consensus)
  • Stock Market
  • Weekly Unemployment Claims
    • The job market tends to lag the growth of the economy by six to nine months
  • Inventory Reports and cardboard box demand

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions statistics to watch1
Current Economic Conditions | Statistics to Watch

Statistics to Watch

  • Median Home Values
  • Existing home sales increased 4% in March
  • New home sales increased 11.1% in March to a 300,000 annual rate; 10.3.% decline over March 2010
    • During boom new home sales were 1.0 to 1.5 million annually or more
  • Housing Starts (Up 7.2% in March but 9.1% below March 2010)
  • Building Permits (increased 11.2% in March but 13.3% below March 2010)

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


Investing in the current market for Illinois School Districts

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions planning is key
Current Economic Conditions | Planning is Key

Planning is Key

  • Maintain a good CFLO
    • Uncertainty in State funding
      • GSA
      • Categoricals
    • Uncertainty in tax receipts
      • Late Payments
      • Appeals/Objections
  • Maintain a good financial projection
    • EAV changes
    • State financial troubles
    • Revenue growth vs. expenditure growth

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions interest rates
Current Economic Conditions | Interest Rates

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions interest rates1
Current Economic Conditions | Interest Rates

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions investment environment
Current Economic Conditions | Investment Environment

Current investment environment

  • In 2010 – 157 banks failed
  • As of 05/06/11 – 40 banks have failed for the year
  • FDIC Insurance
    • Currently at $250k until December 2013
    • Non interest bearing transactional accounts
    • Beware of fees and net rate
  • Collateral
    • Third Party Safekeeping
    • Collateral Mark to Market on a regular basis

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions investment environment1
Current Economic Conditions | Investment Environment

General Investment Options

  • Must follow State Statute
  • Must follow District investment policy
  • Do not recommend Commercial Paper at this time
  • CDs
    • Collateralized
    • Insured
  • AAA Money Market
  • Government obligations
  • Government agency obligations

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


Borrowing in the current market for Illinois School Districts

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions borrowing in the current market
Current Economic Conditions | Borrowing in the Current Market

Borrowing in the Current Market

  • From a national municipal market perspective, interest rates are still near historical lows
  • The tax-exempt bond market has been very volatile over the last several months
  • Weak supply is anticipated for the remainder of the calendar year; however, it is anticipated to increase as the latent “BAB effect” dissipates
    • BABs expired on December 31, 2010

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions historical interest rates
Current Economic Conditions | Historical Interest Rates

*Per MMD as of May 11, 2011

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions the illinois penalty
Current Economic Conditions | The “Illinois Penalty”

The “Illinois Penalty”

  • Continues to challenge Illinois issuers, who continue to suffer for the State’s financial woes
  • The penalty is averaging between 90 and 120 basis points
  • Some investors will no longer buy any Illinois credits
    • PIMCO, for example

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions credit spreads
Current Economic Conditions | Credit Spreads

Credit Spreads

  • An underlying credit rating is essential for most financings
  • Boards and administrators need to be mindful of their decisions and how they impact their District’s credit rating
  • Doing so will impact its borrowing cost in the municipal bond market

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions credit spreads1
Current Economic Conditions | Credit Spreads

*Per MMD as of April 22, 2011

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™


current economic conditions challenges going forward
Current Economic Conditions | Challenges Going Forward

Challenges Going Forward

  • Identify purchasers for long-term municipal bonds
  • Build America Bonds helped to provide additional buyers, however the future of BABs is uncertain
  • Deficit reduction proposals in Washington
    • Eliminate tax-exemption for future municipal bond issues
    • Substitute with tax credit bonds
      • Traditional tax credit bonds
      • Direct pay tax credit bonds like BABs

Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™



Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™



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Integrity. Commitment. Performance.™