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GREEN WAVE SHIPPING PTE LTD.

GREEN WAVE SHIPPING PTE LTD.

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GREEN WAVE SHIPPING PTE LTD.

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  1. GREEN WAVE SHIPPING PTE LTD. RISK ASSESSMENT / MANAGEMENT WE THANK ABS AND STET FOR THE INFORMATION USED IN THIS PRESENTATION GWS

  2. AIM To provide a good understanding of RISK ANALYSIS & RISK MANAGEMENT to enhance SAFETY ONBOARD & PREVENT ACCIDENTS GWS

  3. OBJECTIVE • At the end of the course you will be able to : • IDENTIFY RISKS associated with work onboard. • TAKE MITIGATING actions to reduce the risk level to ALARP. • CONDUCT SAFE OPERATIONS onboard. • PREVENT INJURIES and DAMAGES using structured Risk Analysis approach. GWS

  4. CONTENTS RISK AWARENESS RISK ASSESSMENT IMPACT EVALUATION RISK MANAGEMENT HAZARDS OR THREATS RISK ASSESSMENT GWS CASE STUDY COURSE TEST GWS

  5. CH. 1 - RISK AWARENESS WHAT IS RISK? RISK IS – The chance of an unwanted event or outcome. The possibility of a hazard developing. A potential source of danger or injury. “RISK “ means the possibility of a hazard developing which can cause – Bodily Injury Property damage Environment damage. Some undesirable effects of ignoring Risks onboard – Grounding, Collision, Fire, Explosion, structural damage, Foundering Injury, Fatality, Cargo Damage or Contamination GWS

  6. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT DEFINITIONS HAZARDS or THREATS: are conditions which exist and may lead to unwanted outcome. CONTROLS: are measures taken to prevent hazards from causing unwanted outcome. These could be Physical, Procedural or related to Human Issues. EVENT: is an occurrence that has an associated outcome. There can be many outcomes from a single event and these can be trivial to catastrophic depending on other conditions. RISK: is a product of frequency with which an event is anticipated and the consequence of the event’s outcome. RISK = FREQUENCY X CONSEQUENCE RISK ASSESSMENT: is the process of gathering data and processing information to understand the risk of a particular enterprise. This is used to address Financial, Health, Safety, Environment or Human related risks. The basic questions asked are – What can go wrong? – How likely is it? – What are the impacts? RISK MANAGEMENT: is the way an event is handled or controls put in place, to minimise or remove the risk of an unwanted outcome. GWS

  7. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT WHAT IS RISK ASSESSMENT? A risk assessment is simply a careful examination of what, in your work, could cause harm to people, so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives and affect your business too if output is lost, machinery is damaged, insurance costs increase or you have to go to court. You are legally required to assess the risks in your workplace so that you put in place a plan to control the risks. Risk assessment can be – Quantitative Qualititative GWS

  8. Quantitative risk assessment Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) is the determination of the probability and consequences of potential losses in numerical terms. The assignment of probability values to the various events in the risk model provides for a quantitative assessment of risk. An important aspect of risk assessment is the estimation of the associated uncertainty. Therefore, the process may be completed through the use of statistical models such as probability analysis, Poisson distributions or Bayesian theory. These statistical models require the use of past data and assumptions about future trends. Much of the data may be accumulated from different sources. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT - TYPES GWS

  9. Qualitative risk assessment Critical aspects of risk frequently require qualitative evaluation. Qualitative risk analysis may use “expert” opinion to estimate probability (or frequency) and consequence (or impacts). Based on expert judgement different qualitative consequence categories can be defined in terms of for example high, medium, low, etc. The same can be done for qualitative probability categories in terms of expressions as likely, may occur, not likely, very unlikely. This subjective approach may be sufficient to assess the risk of a system, depending on the decisions to be made and available resources. Concerning qualitative uncertainty estimates, one has to rely on subjective estimates of uncertainty. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT - TYPES GWS

  10. QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES FREQUENCY ASSESSMENT ESTIMATE LIKELIHOODS ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE RISKS MODEL CAUSES CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT - TYPES HAZARD IDENTIFICATION ESTIMATE LIKELIHOODS COMPARISON WITH OTHER RISKS MAJOR RISK CONTRIBUTORS CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENT MODEL EFFECTS ESTIMATE IMPACTS QUALITATIVE RANKING OF RECOMMENDATIONS QUANTIFIED BENEFITS AND COSTS OF RISK REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES GWS

  11. RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS HAZARD IDENTIFICATION METHODS FREQUENCY ASSESSMENT METHODS CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENT METHODS RISK EVALUATION METHODS CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT - METHODS • HISTORICAL RECORDS • FAULT TREE ANALYSIS • EVENT TREE ANALYSIS • HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS • COMMON CAUSE FAILURE ANALYSIS • SOURCE TERM MODELS • ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELS • BLAST AND THERMAL RADIATION MODELS • AQUATIC TRANSPORT MODELS • EFFECT MODELS • MITIGATION MODELS • RISK MATRIX • F-N CURVE • RISK PROFILE • RISK ISOPLETH • RISK DENSITY CURVE • RISK INDEX • LITERATURE SEARCH • WHAT-IF-REVIEW • SAFETY AUDIT • WALK THROUGH • CHECKLIST • HAZOP • FMEA • HAZID GWS

  12. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT How to assess the risks in your workplace Step 1 Identify the hazards Step 2 Decide who might be harmed and how Step 3 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions Step 4 Record your findings and implement them Step 5 Review your assessment and update if necessary ■ a hazard is anything that may cause harm, such as chemicals, electricity, working from ladders, an open drawer etc; ■ the risk is the chance, high or low, that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be GWS

  13. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT – STEP 01 Identify the hazards First you need to work out how people could be harmed. When you work in a place every day it is easy to overlook some hazards, so here are some tips to help you identify the ones that matter: ■ Walk around your workplace and look at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm. ■ Ask your employees or their representatives what they think. They may have noticed things that are not immediately obvious to you. ■ Check manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazards and putting them in their true perspective. ■ Have a look back at your accident and ill-health records – these often help to identify the less obvious hazards. ■ Remember to think about long-term hazards to health (eg high levels of noise or exposure to harmful substances) as well as safety hazards. GWS

  14. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT – STEP 02 Decide who might be harmed and how For each hazard you need to be clear about who might be harmed; it will help you identify the best way of managing the risk. That doesn’t mean listing everyone by name, but rather identifying groups of people (eg ‘people working in the storeroom’ or ‘passers-by’). In each case, identify how they might be harmed, ie what type of injury or ill health might occur. For example, ‘”Engine staff may suffer long term hearing loss due excess noise in the machinery spaces” Remember: ■ some workers have particular requirements, eg new and young workers, over-weight and people with disabilities or blood pressure may be at particular risk. Extra thought will be needed for some hazards; ■ Surveyors, visitors, contractors, maintenance workers etc, who may not be in the workplace all the time; ■ if you share your workplace, you will need to think about how your work affects others present, as well as how their work affects your staff – talk to them; and ■ ask your staff if they can think of anyone you may have missed. GWS

  15. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT – STEP 03 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions Having spotted the hazards, you then have to decide what to do about them. The law requires you to do everything ‘reasonably practicable’ to protect people from harm. You can work this out for yourself, but the easiest way is to compare what you are doing with good practice. ■ Can I get rid of the hazard altogether? ■ If not, how can I control the risks so that harm is unlikely? When controlling risks, apply the principles below, if possible in the following order: ■ try a less risky option (eg switch to using a less hazardous chemical); ■ prevent access to the hazard (eg by guarding); ■ organise work to reduce exposure to the hazard (eg put barriers); ■ issue personal protective equipment (eg clothing, footwear, goggles etc); and ■ provide welfare facilities (eg first aid and washing facilities for removal of contamination). Involve staff, so that you can be sure that what you propose to do will work in Practice. GWS

  16. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT – STEP 04 Record your findings and implement them Putting the results of your risk assessment into practice will make a difference when looking after people and your business. Writing down the results of your risk assessment, and sharing them with your staff, encourages you to do this. . When writing down your results, keep it simple, for example ‘Tripping over rubbish: bins provided, staff instructed, weekly housekeeping checks’, or ‘Fume from welding: local exhaust ventilation used and regularly checked’. GWS

  17. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT – STEP 05 Review your risk assessment and update as needed Few workplaces stay the same. Sooner or later, you will bring in new equipment, substances and procedures that could lead to new hazards. It makes sense, therefore, to review what you are doing on an ongoing basis. Every year or so formally review where you are, to make sure you are still improving, or at least not sliding back. Look at your risk assessment again. Have there been any changes? Are there improvements you still need to make? Have your workers spotted a problem? Have you learnt anything from accidents or near misses? Make sure your risk assessment stays up to date. When you are busy operating your ships, it’s all too easy to forget about reviewing your risk assessment – until something has gone wrong and it’s too late. Why not set a review date for this risk assessment now? Write it down and note it in your diary as an annual event. During the year, if there is a significant change, don’t wait. Check your risk assessment and, where necessary, amend it. If possible, it is best to think about the risk assessment when you’re planning your change – that way you leave yourself more flexibility. GWS

  18. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT The risk assessment does not have to be perfect, but it must be suitable and sufficient. You need to be able to show that: ■ a proper check was made; ■ you asked who might be affected; ■ you dealt with all the significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved; ■ the precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low; and ■ you involved your staff or their representatives in the process. A good plan of action often includes a mixture of different things such as: ■ a few cheap or easy improvements that can be done quickly, perhaps as a temporary solution until more reliable controls are in place; ■ long-term solutions to those risks most likely to cause accidents or ill health; ■ long-term solutions to those risks with the worst potential consequences; ■ arrangements for training employees on the main risks that remain and how they are to be controlled; ■ regular checks to make sure that the control measures stay in place; and ■ clear responsibilities – who will lead on what action, and by when. Remember, prioritise and tackle the most important things first. As you complete each action, tick it off your plan. GWS

  19. CH. 2 - RISK ASSESSMENT Simply put, Risk Assessment determines – What can go wrong? How likely is it to go wrong? (PROBABILITY or LIKELIHOOD) What will happen if it goes wrong? (SEVERITY or CONSEQUENCE) What gets affected? (Injury, Property damage, Environment , Reputation etc). Requirements of Risk Assessment – As per ISM Code, the Safety Management objectives of a company should – Provide safe practices in ship operations and a safe environment. Establish safeguards against all identified risks. Continuously improve safety management skills of persons onboard and ashore Expected outcome of Risk Assessment – Minimise risk to people, property and environment Improve Operational performance and reliability Protection of Asset Uphold the market reputation and expectations of stakeholders. GWS

  20. CH. 3 – RISK IMPACT EVALUATIONLIKELIHOOD Definitions for Likelihood of Harm (Personnel) Very Likely - Typically experienced at least once every six months by an individual. Likely - Typically experienced once every five years by an individual. Unlikely - Typically experienced once during the working lifetime of an individual. Very unlikely - Less than 1% chance of being experienced by an individual during their working lifetime. GWS

  21. CH. 3 – RISK IMPACT EVALUATION SEVERITY Definitions for Severity of Harm or Potential severity of harm - When establishing potential severity of harm, information about the relevant work activity should be considered, together with: a) part(s) of the body likely to be affected; b) nature of the harm, ranging from slight to extremely harmful: 1. slightly harmful (e.g., superficial injuries; minor cuts and bruises; eye irritation from dust; nuisance and irritation; ill-health leading to temporary discomfort) 2. harmful (e.g., lacerations; burns; concussion; serious sprains; minor fractures; deafness; dermatitis; asthma; work-related upper limb disorders; ill-health) 3. extremely harmful (e.g., amputations; major fractures; poisonings; multiple injuries; fatal injuries; occupational cancer; other severely life shortening diseases; acute fatal diseases) GWS

  22. Determining The Risk Rating

  23. CH. 3 – RISK IMPACT EVALUATION - RISK LEVEL Very low - These risks are considered acceptable. No further action is necessary other than to ensure that the controls are maintained. Low - No additional controls are required unless they can be implemented at very low cost (in terms of time, money, and effort). Actions to further reduce these risks are assigned low priority. Ensure that the controls are maintained. Medium - Check if the risks can be lowered, to a tolerable level and preferably to an acceptable level. The risk reduction measures should be implemented within a defined time period. Arrangements should be made to ensure that controls are maintained, particularly if the risk levels area associated with harmful consequences. High - Efforts should be made to reduce the risk. Risk reduction measures should be implemented urgently within a defined time period and it might be necessary to consider suspending or restricting the activity, or to apply interim risk control measures, until this has been completed. Arrangements should be made to ensure that controls are maintained, particularly if the risk levels are associated with extremely harmful consequences and very harmful consequences. Very high - These risk are unacceptable. Substantial improvements in risk control measures are necessary so that the risk is reduced to a tolerable or acceptable level. The work activity should be halted until risk controls are implemented that reduces the risk so that it is no longer very high. If it is not possible to reduce the risk, the work should remain prohibited. GWS

  24. CH. 4 - RISK MANAGEMENT WHAT IS RISK MANAGEMENT? Risk Management is the process where decisions are made to accept a known or assessed risk and measures are put in place to minimise the consequences or probability of an unwanted occurrence. This process minimises the chance of failure and requires a structures risk assessment as an input. There are two main approaches to risk management – 1 – Prescriptive approach 2 – Risk based approach Shipboard Risk management can be active (preferred) or re-active (after the incident). The Active or pro-active risk management has sufficient checks and controls in place to prevent an occurrence. The Reactive risk management identifies the causes of incident and puts steps in pace to prevent recurrence. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT REQUIRES EFFECTIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. MINIMISING RISK IMPROVES PERFORMANCE AND SAFE OPERATIONS. GWS

  25. SHIPBOARD RISK MANAGEMENT REACTIVE MONITORING ACTIVE MONITORING CH. 4 - RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL RISK ASSESSMENT INVESTIGATIVE AND CORRECTIVE ACTION INSPECTION AND CORRECTIVE ACTION CONTROL PROCEDURE, EQUIPMENT TREND TREND REVIEW GWS

  26. CH. 4 - RISK MANAGEMENTRISK BASED APPROACH RISK BASED APPROACH The Risk based management approach takes into account the consequences and the likelihood of a large number of possible accident scenarios. The decision “to do” , or, “not to do” a job depends on the calculation of overall risk which is the product of consequence x frequency . The job can be done if the result is brought down to an acceptable or tolerable risk level by putting mitigating circumstances. RISK = CONSEQUENCY X FREQUENCY Advantages – Provides systematic way for appraisal of major risk Quantifies both consequences and frequencies Considers a wide range of scenarios. Disadvantages – Complicated, time consuming and requires expertise and experience Uncertainties present in all relevant steps and final results GWS

  27. WORKING ENVIRONMENT • Ship stability, effect on crew working under conditions of ships pitch / roll • Weather effects, including fog on watch keeping and external tasks. • Ship location, open sea, approach to ports • Levels of lighting for operations and maintenance tasks and for day and night operations • Considerations of noise levels, effect on communications • Effects of temperature and humidity on task performance • Effects of vibration on tack performance. • ENGINEERING SYSTEMS • Ergonomic design of equipment and workspace • Good layout of Bridge and Engine room • Ergonomic human/machine/computer interface • Specific information available to crew for jobs • Clear labeling and instructions for operation of ships systems and control / communication equipment. CH. 4 - RISK MANAGEMENT - OPTIONS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • Development of organisation policies or recruitment, selection, training, crew levels and makeup, competency assessments etc. • Development of operational and emergency procedures (including.tug and salvage services) • Use of safety management systems • Provision of weather forecasting / routing services. PERSONNEL SYSTEMS • Development of training for crew • Crew levels and makeup • Language and cultural issues • Workload assessment – too much or too little • Motivational and leadership issues GWS

  28. CH. 4 - THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS GWS

  29. CH. 5 – HAZARDS - DEFINITION What is a hazard? Ahazard (when referring to Health and Safety) is – Any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work. Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse effects (to individuals as health effects or to organizations as property or equipment losses). Sometimes a hazard is referred to as being the actual harm or the health effect it caused rather than the hazard. For example, the disease tuberculosis (TB) might be called a hazard by some but in general the TB-causing bacteria would be considered the "hazard" or "hazardous biological agent". Work Place Hazards are defined in the next slide. GWS

  30. CH. 5 – HAZARDS – MORE EXAMPLES Workplace hazards can come from a wide range of sources. General examples include any substance, material, process, practice, etc that has the ability to cause harm or adverse health effect to a person under certain conditions. Table 1fallsProcessWeldingMetalfume feverPracticeHard rock miningSilicosisAs shown in Table 1, The above are few examples. Workplace hazards also include practices or conditions that release uncontrolled energy like: an object that could fall from a height (potential or gravitational energy), a run-away chemical reaction (chemical energy), the release of compressed gas or steam (pressure; high temperature), entanglement of hair or clothing in rotating equipment (kinetic energy), or contact with electrodes of a battery or capacitor (electrical energy). GWS

  31. CH. 5 – HAZARDS - TYPES What types of hazards are there? biological - bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc., chemical - depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical. ergonomic - repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc., physical - radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise, etc, psychosocial - stress, violence, etc., safety - slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment malfunctions or breakdowns Relating to Marine Environment, hazards can be either EXOGENOUS or ENDOGENOUS. GWS

  32. CH. 5 – HAZARDS - MARINE What types of hazards are there? Hazards can be either EXOGENOUS or ENDOGENOUS. EXOGENOUS HAZARDS: 1 – Open Sea Transit Water and associated hazardous state Severe Weather Icebergs 2 – Waterway Navigation other vessels, sharing the same waterway Shallow water or underwater objects Man made obstacles, bridges, buoys, piers etc Floating natural obstacles, icebergs etc. 3 – Port Operations Tides, currents etc Moorings Hazards associated with cargo operations Surge due passing vessels Mechanical problems during discharge. GWS

  33. CH. 5 – HAZARDS - MARINE ENDOGENOUS HAZARDS: Design limitation in structural boundary Design limitations in static load distribution and stability Openings in watertight boundary Machinery hazards Cargo Hazards Inventory of flammable materials Occupational health and safety hazards Poor ergonomic design of working environment and workplace Human and Managerial errors GWS

  34. Potential Sources of Ignition General – 17. Electric Arc 18. Friction 19. Hot Surface 20. Incendiary spark 21. Naked flame 22. Radio waves Accommodation Areas – 23. Navigation equipment 24. Laundry facilities Deck Areas - 25. Deck lighting 26. Funnel exhaust emissions 27. Hot work sparking Machinery Spaces – 28. Air compressor units 29. Generator and M/E exhaust manifolds Hazardous substances onboard ships Accommodation Areas – 6.Combustibles, furnishings 7. Cleaning materials 8. Oil / fat in Galley Deck Areas – 9. Cargo, Chemicals 10. Paints, Oils and Greases Machinery Spaces – 11. Cabling, Combustibles 12. Fuel and Diesel for Engines, boilers and incinerators 13. Fuel, lubes, hydraulic oils, bilges, save-alls 14. Refrigerants 15. Thermal fluids for heating 16. Chemicals Hazards to Personnel Asbestos Inhalation Burns from Chemicals Electric shock and electrocution Slips, trips and falls Pilot ladder / Pilot hoisting operations CH. 5 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION - EXAMPLES Hazards External to ship 1. Storms 2. Lightning 3. Uncharted submerged objects 4. Other ships 5. Shore Installations 6. Pirates, Pilferages GWS

  35. Onboard working conditions • Physical stress from noise, vibration, sea motion, climate, temperature, toxic substances, extreme environment loads, night watch etc. • Ergonomic conditions e:g: inadequate tools, inadequate illumination, ambigious information, badly designed human-machine interface. • Social climate e:g: lack of cooperation, inadequate communication. • Environmental conditions e:g: restricted visibility, high traffic density, restricted fairway. Personal factors Reduced ability e:g: vision, hearing, mobility. Lack of motivation, e:g: lack of incentives to perform. Lack of ability – lack of seamanship, unfamiliarity, language, culture barriers. Fatigue – lack of sleep or irregular meals. Stress CH. 5 - HAZARDS – HUMAN RELATED EXAMPLES Organisational and leadership factors • Inadequate vessel management – inadequate supervision, lack of coordination, no leadership. • Inadequate ship owner management – inadequate procedures, routines, lack of resources for maintenance, or for safe operations or inadequate follow-up. • Inadequate manning – few crew or untrained crew. • Inadequate routines and drills, emerg preparedness. Task features • Task complexity and task load, too high or too low and boring. • Unfamiliarity with the task • Ambiguity of the task goal • Different tasks competing for attention. GWS

  36. CH 6 - RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT - GWS Risk assessment is a detailed and systematic evaluation of all real and potential sources of danger and must be carried out for all new and non routine tasks on board and also during Management of change process. Risk assessment for routine jobs: Risk assessments for routine jobs are retained onboard and can be reused as long as they are properly reviewed and updated to ensure if any significant changes are identified. Where there is no valid risk assessment, a risk assessment must be produced prior to commencing the work. We have prepared a library of common risk assessment jobs which are onboard all vessels. The risk assessment from the library can be used as long as the job undertaken remains the same. Each time prior to carrying out the job the HOD and the responsible person will discuss in the tool box meeting whether the job scope remains as available onboard in the RA Library. If the conditions and scope are changed then a risk assessment has to be carried out as per our manuals. If at any time during the job, the work scope or conditions change, or any further hazards are identified, the work shall be stopped and the Risk Assessment FORM OS-0401 is to be sent to the office for review. GWS

  37. CH. 6 - RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT - GWS All further safeguards have to be put into place prior to commencing the work. The risks are to be reassessed and if the risk level is still found to be more than low, then company’s approval has to be obtained. Tasks requiring risk assessment using FORM OS-0401 For new or non routine task. If circumstances change while carrying out routine tasks or present risks of high nature as medium, high, extreme nature. It is physically impossible to fully comply with the requirements in a stated procedure or other recognized source of guidance/regulation. Previously used safeguards may not be reasonably practicable in this case. For cases 1 to 4 above, if the risk at any stage is more than low, then the risk assessment FORM OS-0401 shall be sent to the office for approval (work shall not be started). For conducting hot work in any area other than designated area, or for life boat / rescue boat lowering into the water, risk assessment form shall be sent to the office irrespective of the level of risk. For routine work covered under RA Library onboard, this has as to be updated ( hazard compliance record), daily for the RA used. This shall serve as a record of the RA used for daily routine tasks. GWS

  38. HOSE CONNECTION/DISCONNECTION • HOT WORK DESIGNATED AREA • HOT WORK OUTSIDE DESIGNATED AREA • LIFE BOAT LAUNCHING AND HOISTING • LIFTING EQUIPMENT USE OF • MAIN ENGINE UNIT OVERHAUL • MOORING & UNMOORING OPERATIONS • NAVIGATION COASTAL • NAVIGATION HEAVY WEATHER • NAVIGATION IN ICE • NAVIGATION OPEN SEA • NAVIGATION PILOT ON BOARD • NITROGEN RECEIVING FROM SHORE • OPERATION OF OILY WATER SEPARATOR • PAINTING • PILOT EMBARK/DISEMBARK BY LADDER • RESCUE BOAT LAUNCHING/RECOVERY • ROUTINE MAINTENANCE OF CRITICAL EQUIPMENT • SLOPS DECANTING OF • TANK CLEANING • TUGS WORKING WITH • WORKING ALOFT OR OVERSIDE • CHANGING TO ECDIS FROM PAPER CHARTS • ANCHORING INCL IN DEEP WATER • ASBESTOS HANDLING • BALLAST HANDLING • BALLAST TANKS INSPECTION/WORK IN • BATTERY MAINTENANCE • BUNKERING INCL IN LADEN CONDITION • CARGO - ADDING ADDITIVES TO (DOPING) • CARGO INTERNAL TRANSFER • CARGO LOADING/DISCHARGING • CARGO TANK INSPECTION/WORK IN • COLD WORK • DE-ICING • DE-SCALING • DOUBLE BANKING AND STS OPERATIONS • ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT HANDLING • ENCLOSED SPACE ENTRY • FIRE WIRES RIGGING OF • GANGWAY – RIGGING AND UNRIGGING • GARBAGE HANDLING • HEAVY WEATHER BALLAST TAKING OF • HELICOPTER OPERATIONS CH. 6 - RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT - GWS STANDARD RISK ANALYSIS LIBRARY FOR VESSEL ACTIVITIES TTHIS LIBRARY HAS BEEN PLACED ONBOARD ALL OUR VESSELS GWS

  39. CH. 6 - RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT - GWS All further safeguards have to be put into place prior to commencing the work. The risks are to be reassessed and if the risk level is still found to be more than low, then company’s approval has to be obtained. Tasks requiring risk assessment using FORM OS-0401 For new or non routine task. If circumstances change while carrying out routine tasks or present risks of high nature as medium, high, extreme nature. It is physically impossible to fully comply with the requirements in a stated procedure or other recognized source of guidance/regulation. Previously used safeguards may not be reasonably practicable in this case. For cases 1 to 4 above, if the risk at any stage is more than low, then the risk assessment FORM OS-0401 shall be sent to the office for approval (work shall not be started). For conducting hot work in any area other than designated area, or for life boat / rescue boat lowering into the water, risk assessment form shall be sent to the office irrespective of the level of risk. For routine work covered under RA Library onboard, this has as to be updated ( hazard compliance record), daily for the RA used. This shall serve as a record of the RA used for daily routine tasks. GWS

  40. CH. 6 – GWS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM OS-0401 GWS

  41. CH. 6 - RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX - GWS GWS

  42. CH. 7 - CASE STUDY EXAMPLE - NAVIGATING IN WATERWAY Operating Scenario: Navigating in a waterway Hazard Identification: Tidal changes and water depth / Underwater objects / Local shipping traffic and other ships / Current / Bridges, Buoys and other fixed structures / Weather and visibility etc. Preventive measures: System reliability is provided by Rules through equipment design checks, system redundancy, periodical surveys etc. / Risk assessment can be done to ensure effective system reliability and improvements by preventive maintenance program, pre waterway entry check, crew standing by in engine room, all generators put on line etc. Hazardous state or events: Loss of propulsion (This could lead to collision or grounding which could lead to other consequences such as pollution, blockage of waterway, foundering etc. Consequence – mitigating measures : Some waterways have mandatory requirements such as tug-escort, Risk analysis can be done to provide for emergency preparedness such as – standby with anchors, additional crew on standby for restoring propulsion etc. GWS

  43. CH. 8 – QUICK TEST Question 1 of 20 IN THE RISK BASED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT, WHAT IS THE CORRECT STATEMENT FREQUENCY = RISK X CONSEQUENCE RISK = FREQUENCY X CONSEQUENCE RISK = CONSEQUENCE / FREQUENCY RISK = FREQUENCY X LIKELIHOOD Question 2 of 20 WHEN DECIDING ON PRECAUTIONS TO REMOVE OR MINIMISE RISKS THE FOLLOWING COULD BE DONE -(MORE THAN ONE CORRECT ANSWER) PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO VISITORS SUCH AS SURVEYORS, VETTING INSPECTORS WHO ARE NOT ALWAYS ONBOARD. WALKAROUND TO IDENTIFY HAZARDS. TRY A LESS RISKY OPTION (E:G: USING A LESS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL ETC) PROVIDE WELFARE FACILITIES (E:G: FIRST AID, WASHING SHOWERS ETC) Question 3 of 20 WHAT IS CORRECT ABOUT RISK BASED MANAGEMENT APPROACH - (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) THE DECISION "TO DO" OR "NOT TO DO" IS BASED ON THE CALCULATION OF OVERALL RISK WHICH IS A PRODUCT OF CONSEQUENCE X FREQUENCY THERE IS NO UNCERTAINTY IN ALL STEPS AND IN THE FINAL RESULTS. THIS APPROACH QUANTIFIES BOTH THE CONSEQUENCE AND FREQUENCY. RISK BASED APPROACH IS TIME CONSUMING AND REQUIRES EXPERTISE AND EXPERIENCE Question 4 of 20 RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS LOOK AT ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, WORKING ENVIRONMENT, MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND PERSONNEL SYSTEMS. THESE INCLUDE -(MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) SPECIFIC INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO CREW FOR JOBS. GOOD LAYOUT OF BRIDGE AND ENGINE ROOM. DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING FOR CREW EFFECTS OF VIBRATION, TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON TASK PERFORMANCE. LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL ISSUES GWS

  44. CH. 8 – QUICK TEST Question 5 of 20 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT CORRECT (MORE THAN ONE RIGHT RESPONSE) HAZARD IS A MEASURE TAKEN TO PREVENT UNWANTED OUTCOME RISK IS PROCESS OF GATHERING DATA AND PROCESSING INFORMATION TO INCREASE SAFETY RISK IS A PRODUCT OF FREQUENCY X CONSEQUENCE THE HIGHER THE RISK, THE SAFER WILL BE THE OUTCOME IF NO MITIGATING STEPS ARE TAKEN. Question 6 of 20 THE RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS LOOK AT ENGINEERING SYSTEMS APART FROM OTHER THINGS. WHICH OF THE BELOW IS NOT COVERED UNDER ENGINEERING SYSTEMS.(MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT AND WORKSPACE CLEAR LABELING AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATION OF SHIPS SYSTEMS. PROVISION OF WEATHER ROUTING AND FORECASTING SRVICES MOTIVATIONAL AND LEADERSHIP ISSUES. Question 7 of 20 EXOGENOUS (EXTERNAL) HAZARDS INCLUDE OPEN SEA TRANSIT, WATERWAY NAVIGATION, PORT OPERATIONS ETC. WHICH OF THE BELOW ARE EXOGENOUS HAZARDS -(MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) SURGE DUE TO PASSING VESSELS WHEN TIED UP ALONGSIDE TIDES, CURRENTS ETC DESIGN LIMITATION IN STATIC LOAD DISTRIBUTION AND STABILITY FLOATING NATURAL OBSTACLES SUCH AS ICEBERGS OTHER VESSELS SHARING THE SAME WATERWAY Question 8 of 20 WHICH OF THESE ARE FREQUENCY ASSESSMENT METHODS? RISK INDEX FAULT TREE ANALYSIS HISTORICAL RECORDS HUMAN RELIABILITY GWS

  45. CH. 8 – QUICK TEST Question 9 of 20 A NEW RISK ASSESSMENT MUST BE DONE EVERYTIME WHEN - DOING CERTAIN JOBS WHICH REQUIRE A FRESH RISK ASSESSMENT EACH TIME THEY ARE DONE(SUCH AS TANK ENTRY OF LOWERING FREE FALL LIFEBOATS ETC) DOING ROUTINE JOBS WITH LOW RISK INDEX THE LAST RISK ASSESSMENT HAS NOT BEEN REVIEWED FOR OVER A YEAR OR AS PER COMPANY POLICY. THE JOB IS URGENT AND TIME SENSITIVE (SUCH AS STEERING CHECKS PRE ARRIVAL PORT) Question 10 of 20 RISK IMPACT EVALUATION - THE RISK LEVEL WHICH DICTATES THAT - NO ADDITIONAL CONTROLS ARE NECESSARY UNLESS POSSIBLE TO IMPLEMENT AT LOW COST IS _________? LOW MEDIUM HIGH VERY HIGH Question 11 of 20 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE CORRECT REGARDING QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS? PAST DATA AND ASSUMPTIONS ARE USED TO PREDICT FUTURE TRENDS IN QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS. THIS IS A DETERMINATION OF PROBABILITY AND CONSEQUENCE IN NUMERICAL TERMS. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION IS NEEDED FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS STATISTICAL MODELS SUCH AS PROBABILITY ANALYSIS, POISSON DISTRIBUTION AND BAYESIAN THEORY MAY BE USED FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS. Question 12 of 20 FOR A FREQUENCY SCALE 1 (RARE) TO 6 (VERY LIKELY) AND SEVERITY SCALE 1 (MINOR) TO 5 (CATASTROPHIC), A PRODUCT OF 12 GIVES THE RISK RATING -? LOW OR MEDIUM VERY HIGH MEDIUM OR HIGH LOW Next GWS

  46. CH. 8 – QUICK TEST Q 13/20 - THERE ARE VARIOUS TYPES OF HAZARDS SUCH AS BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, ERGONOMIC, PHYSICAL, PSYCHO SOCIAL, SAFETY ETC. WHICH OF BELOW ARE NOT SAFETY HAZARDS? (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) STRESS TOXIC PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALS EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS VIRUSES SLIPPING / TRIPPING HAZARDS Q 14/20 - SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF HAZARDS TO PERSONNEL IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT ARE - (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) BURNS FROM CHEMICALS PILOT LADDER, PILOT HOISTING OPERATIONS NAKED FLAME ASBESTOS INHALATION ELECTRIC SHOCK OR ELECTROCUTION Q 15/20 - HUMAN RELATED HAZARDS INCLUDE PERSONAL FACTORS, ONBOARD WORKING CONDITIONS, TASK FEATURES AND ORGANISATIONAL AND LEADERSHIP FACTORS. WHICH OF THE BELOW ARE ORGANISATIONAL AND LEADERSHIP FACTORS - (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT RESPONSE) RESTRICTED VISIBILITY, HIGH TRAFFIC DENSITY, RESTRICTED FAIRWAY ETC. INADEQUATE ROUTINES AND DRILLS, EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS INADEQUATE MANNING - FEW CREW OR UNTRAINED CREW AMBIGUITY OF THE TASK GOALS INADEQUATE VESSEL MANAGEMENT Q 16/20 - AS PER GWS SMS, RISK ASSESSMENT MUST BE CONDUCTED PRIOR TO STARTING THE JOB FOR ____ ROUTINE JOBS INCLUDED UNDER RISK LIBRARY ONBOARD ALL NON ROUTINE JOBS FOR WHICH A RISK ASSESSMENT IS NOT AVAILABLE ONBOARD CRITICAL JOBS SUCH AS TANK ENTRY, RESCUE BOAT LAUNCHING ETC CONDITIONS HAVE CHANGED SINCE THE JOB WAS STARTED AFTER DOING A RISK ASSESSMENT GWS

  47. CH. 8 – QUICK TEST Question 17 of 20 AS PER GWS RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX THE TOLERANCE LEVEL OF RISK FACTOR ON A SCALE 1 TO 8 RANGES FROM TRIVIAL RISK TO INTOLERABLE RISK.. WHAT DOES A FACTOR 6 MEAN - THE JOB IS TRIVIAL RISK REQUIRING NO FURTHER ACTION, PROCEED WITH THE JOB THE JOB IS SUBTANTIAL RISK - DISCUSS WITH COMPANY OFFICE FOR PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE. A RESPONSIBLE OFFICER MUST SUPERVISE THE JOB CONTINUOUSLY. THE JOB IS INTOLERABLE RISK, THE WORK CANNOT BE ACCEPTED AND ACTIVITY MUST NOT CONTINUE THE RISK IS TOLERABLE, DO THE JOB MAKING SURE IT DOES NOT GET WORSE AND HAVE A RESPONSIBLE OFFICE SUPERVISE INTERMITTENTLY. Question 18 of 20 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS NOT AN OUTPUT OF RISK ASSESSMENT MINIMISE HARM TO PEOPLE, PROPERTY AND ENVIRONMENT IMPROVE OPERATIONAL RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE DETERMINE WHAT CAN GO WRONG UPHOLD MARKET REPUTATION AND EXPECTATIONS OF STAKE-HOLDERS Question 19 of 20 WHICH IS THE CORRECT ORDER OF RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS - EVALUATE - MANAGE - ASSESS - MEASURE ASSESS - EVALUATE - MANAGE - MEASURE ASSESS - MEASURE - MANAGE - EVALUATE MEASURE - MANAGE - ASSESS - EVALUATE Question 20 of 20 WHEN IDENTIFYING HAZARDS THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE DONE - ACCIDENT AND ILL-HEALTH RECORDS OFTEN HELP TO IDENTIFY LESS OBVIOUS HAZARDS ISSUE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ASK OTHER PEOPLE AT YOUR WORKPLACE AS THEY MAY HAVE NOTED THINGS YOU MIGHT MISS IDENTIFY THE SHORT TERM AS WELL AS LONG TERM HAZARDS GWS

  48. SUMMARY OF THE COURSE GWS

  49. NO JOB IS SO IMPORTANT THAT IT CANNOT BE DONE SAFELY . GWS

  50. Please click on the link below to take the test on Risk Analysis http://www.greenwave.com.sg/knowledge-testing.html THANK YOU GWS