2 Strings, 50cm 2 Paper clips 2 Pennies 2 Pencils 1 Meter tape Masking tape How to Build a Swinger sheet Materials to Make Swingers
Experiment • How many times do you think your swinger will swing in 15 seconds? • How can you find out?
Standardize the Counting Cycle • When the swinger is released, the swinger will swing away and then come back • This is one Cycle • Need to count each time the swinger comes back close to the point from which it was released.
number of pennies release position length of swing Push the swinger as you release it. Blow on it. What could you change in your swinger system that might change the number of swings in 15 seconds?
What can you think of thatswings? • old clock • museum • playground swing • metronome • ponytail • birdhouse • leaf on a tree
Content/Inquiry Chart • What is a variable? • What is a pendulum and where have you seen one? • What variables might affect the number of cycles the pendulum makes in 15 seconds?
Science Stories • What Scientist Do?
For Each Group 2 Swingers 2 Strings, different lengths 2 Pencils 4 Pennies 1 Meter tape For the Class Scissors Masking tape Clock or watch with second hand Swingers number line MaterialsPart 2: Testing Variables
Standard Pendulum • Review the three variables that they thought might affect the number of swings of a pendulum. • Review the setup for the pendulum -38 cm long, one, penny, released straight out to the side for 15 seconds. This is called a standard pendulum system. (record this in your journal)
What is an experiment? • An experiment is an investigation designed to find out how variables affect outcomes. • An experiment in which one variable is changed and the outcome is compared to a standard is a controlled experiment.
Test the Variable of Release Position How do you think this new release position will affect the number of swings? More swings? Fewer swings? Same number?
If we change the angle Change the angle The number of swings will angle
Test the Variable of Mass How do you think adding mass to the pendulum bob will affect the number of swings? More swings? Fewer swings? Same number?
The effect of mass on the number of swings If we increase mass The number of swings will: Pennies
Test the Variable of Length How do you think changing the length of the pendulum will affect the number of swings? More swings? Fewer swings? Same number?
Materials for Variable length • Each group will be given an envelope with different lengths of strings • Handout – Swingers Picture Graph – each person • Use the meter tape make the swinger the same way we made the standard swinger
Length Number of Swings ______________________________________________ 200 cm 170 cm 120 cm 90 cm 70 cm 55 cm
Is there a relationship between the length of the pendulum and the number of swings a pendulum makes in 15 seconds? • The longer the pendulum, the ____the swings. • The shorter the pendulum, the _____the swings. • The greater the number of swings, the _____the pendulum. • The fewer the number of swings, the _____ the pendulum.
Content/Inquiry Chart • Which variables made no difference in the number of swings? • Which variable did make a difference in the number of swings? • What variables might affect the number of cycles the pendulum makes in 15 seconds?
Project Folder • As students come up with questions or ideas that suggest further investigation, you will ask them to write the idea on a piece of paper, which you will keep in a class folder. • This will be a resource for students at the end of the module when they are choosing a project to investigate on their own.
Two-Coordinate Graph • The x-axis (along the bottom) is reserved for the independent variable. • What did I know before the experiment started? • The y-axis (along the side) is reserved for the dependent variable. • What did I find out as a result of doing the experiment?
Two coordinate graph • Read the t-table on the Swingers Picture graph to find the length and number of swings of the first swingers • Find the number along the (x axis) horizontal line that represents the length of the first swinger • Run your finger up that line until you come to the horizontal line representing the number of swings made by the first swinger • Make a pencil dot on that intersection • Repeat the procedure for the rest of the swingers
Content/Inquiry Chart • How can you predict how many swings an 80-cm pendulum will make in 15 seconds?
Word bank • Two-coordinate graph- shows the outcome of a series of experiments when a variable is changed by steps.
Read Science Stories • Swinging through History?
Part 1: Exploring Boats • What are lifeboats and how are they used?
6 paper cups Sponge 2 books Pencil Permanent marking pens Scissors 50 Pennies- 1983-later 1 Meter tape 2 Plastic cups 1 Syringe 50ml 1 Basin Variable Journal Student Sheet #8 Student Sheet #9 Materials for Exploring Boats
How many passengers can your lifeboat hold before it sinks? • Test your boat • In your journal write a list of variables that might affect the number of passengers supported by their boat.
Identify Variables • Boats of slightly different size. • Distribution of passengers in the boat. • Gentle versus reckless placement of passengers. • Condition of the sea.
Variable of the boat • How could you check the variable of boat size to find out if in fact all the boats are identical?
Vocabulary • The greatest amount of fluid a container can hold is its capacity.
Capacity • Using the handout Measuring Lifeboat Capacity measure the capacity of your 3cm boat
Construct Four New Boats • All new boats should be a different size. • No shorter than 2 cm • No taller than 4 cm • Name each boat. • Find the capacity of each boat. • Write the name and capacity of each boat on its side.
Part 2: Lifeboat Inspection • In a controlled experiment, all of the variables are controlled, or kept constant, except one, so that the experimenter can observe the effect of that one variable on the experimental outcome. • You will conduct controlled experiments to find out how the variable of capacity affects the number of passengers a lifeboat can hold.
Standard • Place pennies gently. • Place pennies evenly. • Don’t shake the basin. • Dry pennies. • Place the pennies with heads up.
Independent and Dependent Variables • If you wanted to make a graph of the results of your lifeboat experiment, what are the two variables you would graph? • Which variable did you know before the experiment started, the size of your boats or the number of passengers they hold? • The independent variable goes on the x-axis. • The dependent variable goes on the y-axis.
Content/Inquiry Chart • Is there a relationship between the capacity of lifeboats and the number of passengers they hold?
Part 3: Inspecting Other Boats • In a controlled experiment, all of the variables are controlled, or kept constant, except one, so that the experimenter can observe the effect of that one variable on the experimental outcome. • You will conduct controlled experiments to find out how the variable of capacity affects the number of passengers a lifeboat can hold.
Review Variables/Content Inquiry • Which boat held the greatest number of passengers? • What variables make it possible for a boat to hold lots of passengers? • What variables did you have to control? • What is the relationship between the capacity of the boat and the number of passengers it can hold. • If you had a new boat, could you use your graph to predict how many passengers it could hold?
Swap Fleets • Record your results in part 3 of the Lifeboat Inspection sheet
Content/Inquiry Chart • How were you able to predict the number of passengers a new boat would hold? • Did any results surprise you? If so, what do you think happened?
Content/Inquiry Chart • What variables might affect the number of passengers (pennies) a paper-cup boat can hold?