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Build Management. Outline of the Lecture. Purpose of Software Configuration Management (SCM) Some Terminology Software Configuration Management Activities Outline of a Software Configuration Management Plan Build Management Continous Integration. The Problem.

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Outline of the lecture
Outline of the Lecture

  • Purpose of Software Configuration Management (SCM)

  • Some Terminology

  • Software Configuration Management Activities

  • Outline of a Software Configuration Management Plan

  • Build Management

  • Continous Integration


The problem
The Problem

  • The transition from source code to the executable application contains many mechanical steps:

    • Settings required paths and libraries

    • Compiling source code

    • Copying source files (e.g. images, sound files, start scripts)

    • Setting of file permissions (e.g. to executable)

    • Packaging of the application (e.g. zip, tar, dmg)

  • Executing these steps manually is time-consuming and the chance of introducing failures is high


Requirements for build management
Requirements for Build Management

  • Large and distributed software projects need to provide a development infrastructure with an integrated build management that supports:

    • Regular builds from the master directory

    • Automated execution of tests

    • E-mail notification

    • Determination of code metrics

    • Automated publishing of the applications and test results (e.g. to a website)

  • Tools for Build Management:

    • Unix’s Make

    • Ant

    • Maven


Activities in build management
Activities in Build Management

  • The transition from source code to the executable application contains many mechanical (boring) activities:

    • Settings required paths and libraries

    • Compiling source code

    • Copying source files (e.g. images, sound files, start scripts)

    • Setting of file permissions (e.g. to executable)

    • Packaging of the application (e.g. zip, tar, dmg)

  • Executing these steps manually is time-consuming and the chance of introducing failures is high

  • Automating these steps has its origins in Unix


Development of build management
Development of Build Management

  • 1950:

    • Execution of a sequence of commands

    • Job command language scripts

  • 1970s: make

    • Unix tool to support builds with makefiles

  • 1990s: Ant

    • Open source platform independent build tool

  • 2000s: Maven

    • Project management and integrated build tool


Example build management in unix
Example: Build Management in Unix

  • The Unix command make executes compilation of large programs according to a set of dependency rules

  • Dependency rule

    • Tree structure of prerequisites

    • Time stamps of files

      Example of a dependency rule:

      main.obj : main.c

      gcc -c main.c


Example makefile
Example Makefile

project.exe : main.obj io.obj

tlink main.obj, io.obj, project.exe

main.obj : main.c

gcc -c main.c

io.obj : io.c

gcc - c io.c


Build management
Make

  • Make is as powerful as the existing commands it executes

  • However, make has its problems:

    • Complex shell scripts are hard to maintain and hard to debug

      • Different shell commands are needed on different platforms

    • Firs step towards platform independence: Ant


Ant a platform independent build management tool
Ant, a Platform Independent Build Management Tool

  • Build tool based on Java, http://ant.apache.org

  • Tasks get executed by invoking Java classes, not shell scripts or shell commands

  • Ant allows the execution of tasks such as:

    • compilation

    • execution

    • file system operations (e.g. copy, move)

    • archiving

    • deployment

  • Ant has become a standard in the Java Open Source community

  • Ant build files are platform independent

    • Ant’s build file is an XML document



Examples of ant tasks
Examples of Ant Tasks

Each Ant Task is a Java application.

Custom tasks can be implemented in Java to support

custom needs.


Construction of ant build files
Construction of Ant Build Files

  • The default name for a Ant build file is build.xml

  • The xml root element must be the ‘project’ element

    • The ‘default’ attribute of the project element is required and specifies the default target to use

  • Targets contain zero or more AntTasks

    • The ‘name’ attribute is required

  • AntTasks are the smallest units of the build process


Ant build file example
Ant Build File Example

<project default="hello">

<target name="hello">

<echo message="Hello, World"/>

</target>

</project>

% ant

Buildfile: build.xmlhello: [echo] Hello, WorldBUILD SUCCESSFUL

Total time: 2 seconds

Execution

of build file:


Maven overview
Maven Overview

  • A Java project management and integration build tool, http://maven.apache.org/

  • Maven supports the same functionality as Ant

    • Ant is actually integrated into Maven

  • Maven’s extended functionality

    • Automatically generates a development website containing

      • Project organization information

      • Project development state reports

  • Based on the concept of a central project object model (POM)


Maven capabilities
Maven Capabilities

  • Maven is able to

    • Receive developer artifacts from the programmers’ SCM directory

    • Compile and package the source code

    • Download dependent artifacts from another (external) repository

    • Generate Javadoc websites

    • Generate developer and code metrics

    • Generate websites containing status information to track issues

    • Deploy the compiled source code and the generated website to a webserver


Modeling a project in maven
Modeling a Project in Maven

Project Object Model (POM)

  • Project name, id, description, version number

  • Website URL

  • Issue tracking URL

  • Mailing list URLs

  • SCM directory URL

  • Developer information

  • License information

  • Dependencies

    • Name, version, location of a Java library from jar file

  • Project directory layout

    • Specifies source code and unit test code directories


Modeling a project in maven uml

Project Descriptor

Developer Descriptor

Repository Descriptor

name

currentVersion

organization

inceptionYear

description

url

name

id

organization

roles

connection

developerConnection

url

Build Descriptor

sourceDirectory

resources

Modeling a Project in Maven (UML)

Project Object Model


Example generating arena s development website
Example: Generating ARENA’s Development Website

  • ARENA uses a SCM master directory at oose.globalse.org

  • ARENA depends on the Java library servlet.jar available in the Ibiblio repository

  • The ARENA website is located on the server sysiphus.in.tum.de

  • Maven compiles the ARENA sources in the programmer’s directory of the developer


Modeling a project in maven uml1

Project Descriptor

Developer Descriptor

Repository Descriptor

name

currentVersion

organization

inceptionYear

description

url

name

id

organization

roles

connection

developerConnection

url

Build Descriptor

sourceDirectory

resources

Modeling a Project in Maven (UML)

Project Object Model


Project descriptor for arena in project xml
Project Descriptor for ARENA (in project.xml)

<project>

<!-- a unique name for this project -->

<id>arena</id>

<!-- a short but descriptive name for the project -->

<name>ARENA</name>

<currentVersion>0.9</currentVersion>

<!-- details about organization who 'owns' the project -->

<organization>

<name>Bernd Bruegge &amp; Allen H. Dutoit</name>

<url>http://wwwbruegge.in.tum.de/</url>

<logo>/images/ase_logo.gif</logo>

</organization>

<inceptionYear>2004</inceptionYear>

<logo>/images/arena.gif</logo>

<description>ARENA</description>

<!-- the project home page -->

<url>http://sysiphus.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/arena</url>

<siteAddress>sysiphus.informatik.tu-muenchen.de

</siteAddress>

<siteDirectory>/www/arena</siteDirectory>



Team members and roles in project xml
Team Members and Roles in project.xml

<developers>

<developer>

<name>Allen Dutoit</name>

<id>dutoit</id>

<organization>Technische Universität München </organization>

<roles>

<role>Architect</role> <role>Developer</role>

</roles>

</developer>

<developer>

<name>Michael Nagel</name>

<id>nagel</id>

<organization>Technische Universität München </organization>

<roles> <role>Developer</role>

</roles>

</developer>

<developer>

<name>Timo Wolf</name>

<id>wolft</id>

<organization>Technische Universität München </organization>

<roles> <role>Developer</role>

</roles>

</developer>

</developers>



Software configuration management specification in project xml
Software Configuration Management Specification in project.xml

  • The repository tag enables Maven to

    • map the user ids used by the SCM tool to the developer names listed in the Maven team site

    • identify developers activities

    • identify source code changes made by the developers

<repository>

<connection>

scm|svn|http|//oose.globalse.org/svn/trunk/examples/arena

</connection>

<developerConnection>

scm|svn|http|//oose.globalse.org/svn

</developerConnection>

<url>

http://oose.globalse.org/svn/trunk/examples/arena/

</url>

</repository>


Generated website developer activities last 30 days
Generated Website: project.xmlDeveloper Activities (last 30 days)


Generated website change log last 30 days
Generated Website: project.xmlChange Log (last 30 days)


Build management in the project xml
Build Management in the project.xml project.xml

The Build tag specifies the programmer’s directory containing the source code to be used for the build

<build>

<sourceDirectory>src</sourceDirectory>

<resources>

<resource>

<directory>src</directory>

<includes>

<include>**/*.properties</include>

<include>**/*.gif</include>

</includes>

</resource>

</resources>

</build>



Outline of the lecture1
Outline of the Lecture project.xml

  • Purpose of Software Configuration Management (SCM)

  • Some Terminology

  • Software Configuration Management Activities

  • Outline of a Software Configuration Management Plan

  • Build Management

  • Continous Integration


Typical problems and risks in software projects
Typical Problems and Risks in Software Projects project.xml

  • Lack of project visibility

    • Nobody knows what is going on

  • Late discovery of faults

    • The later a fault is found, the more expensive it is to fix it.

  • Lack of deployable software

    • “It worked on my machine”

    • Also, horizontal integration testing strategies don’t focus on an early running system. It is often created in the last moment

  • Low quality software

    • Managers and developers make last-minute decisions to deliver a system developed with the above problems.


Continuous integration motivation
Continuous Integration Motivation project.xml

  • Risk #1: The later integration occurs in a project, the bigger is the risk that unexpected faults occur

  • Risk #2: The higher the complexity of the software system, the more difficult it is to integrate its components

  • Continous integration addresses these risks by building as early as possible and frequently

  • Additional Advantages:

    • There is always an executable version of the system

    • Team members have a good overview of the project status


Definition continuous integration
Definition Continuous Integration project.xml

Continuous Integration: A software development method where members of a team integrate their work frequently, usually each person integrates at least daily, leading to multiple integrations per day.

Each integration is verified by an automated build including the execution of tests to detect integration errors as quickly as possible.


Continuous integration can regularly answers these questions
Continuous Integration can regularly answers these Questions project.xml

  • Do all the software components work together?

  • How much code is covered by automated tests?

  • Where all tests successful after the latest change?

  • What is my code complexity?

  • Is the team adhering to coding standards?

  • Where there any problems with the last deployment?


Modeling a continuous integration system
Modeling a Continuous Integration System project.xml

  • Functions:

    • Set up scheduling strategy (poll, event-based)

    • Detect change

    • Execute build script when change has been detected

    • Run unit test cases

    • Generate project status metrics

    • Visualize status of the projects

    • Move successful builds into Software repository

  • Components (Subsystems)

    • Master Directory: Version control (IEEE: Controlled Library).

    • Builder Subsystem: Execute build script when a change has been detected

    • Continuous Integration (CI) Server

    • Management Subsystem: Visualize project status via Webbrowser

    • Notification Subsystem: Publishes results of the build via different channels (E-Mail Client, RSS Feed)


Analysis functional model for continuous integration
Analysis: Functional Model for Continuous Integration project.xml

Simple Exercise: Develop the functional model!




Design of a continuous integration system
Design of a Continuous Integration System System

  • Development Node

    • Manage Programmer’s Directory (IEEE: Dynamic Library)

    • Software Configuration Management client

    • Integrated Development Environment

    • Run build script locally using the Builder Subsystem


Design of a continuous integration system deployment diagram
Design of a Continuous Integration System (Deployment Diagram)

  • Software Configuration Management Node

    • Contains the Master Directory (IEEE: Controlled Library)

    • Runs the Software Configuration Management Server


Design of a continuous integration system deployment diagram1
Design of a Continuous Integration System (Deployment Diagram)

  • Integration Build Node

    • Creates & maintains the Software Repository (IEEE: static library)

    • SCM Client interacts with SCM Node if (when) a change has occurred

    • Runs build globally using Builder when a change has been detected

    • Notification component publishes results of the build

      • uses different channels such as E-Mail or RSS Feed


Design of a continuous integration system deployment diagram2
Design of a Continuous Integration System (Deployment Diagram)

  • Management Node

    • Visualize build results

    • Visualize project metrics

    • Receive notification about build status


Examples of available continous integration systems
Examples of Available Diagram)Continous Integration Systems

  • Cockpit

  • CruiseControl and CruiseControl.NET

  • Anthill

  • Continuum

  • Hudson

List of continuous integration tools:

http://confluence.public.thoughtworks.org/display/

CC/CI+Feature+Matrix


Cruisecontrol subsystem overview not in uml
CruiseControl: Subsystem Overview (not in UML!) Diagram)

Source: http://cruisecontrol.sourceforge.net/overview.html


Cruise control the build loop
Cruise Control: The Build Loop Diagram)

  • The daemon process checks for source code changes in the projects

  • If a change has occurred, the subsystem executes the following actions:

    • Obtain all the build artifacts (described in “config.xml”)

      • Possibly via the project.xml file (if Maven is used)

    • Execute the Build file

    • Write the results into a log file (“xml logs”)

    • Send notifications to subscribers.


Cruise control reporting module and dashboard
Cruise Control: Reporting Module and Dashboard Diagram)

  • Reporting: A Java Server Page (JSP) based web page

    • Reads the XML log file

    • Gives access to the build artifacts

    • Shows build & test results

  • Dashboard: An Ajax based web page

    • Gives overview of projects on the cruise control server


Cruisecontrol directory layout i
CruiseControl Directory Layout I Diagram)

Ant binaries

Build artifacts

Scripts for starting the

cruisecontrol server

Main

configuration

file

Dashboard

configuration file

Log files

Files needed for operation

Projects to be

build


Cruisecontrol directory layout ii
CruiseControl Directory Layout II Diagram)

Project folders

Timestamp named

folders for build artifacts

Project artifacts of a

specific build


Cruisecontrol webpages
CruiseControl Webpages Diagram)

http://localhost:8080/cruisecontrol/


Cruisecontrol webpages1
CruiseControl Webpages Diagram)

http://localhost:8080/dashboard/


Getting started with cruisecontrol
Getting Started with CruiseControl Diagram)

  • Download CruiseControl binary distribution

    • http://cruisecontrol.sourceforge.net/download.html

  • Unzip downloaded archive

  • Run cruisecontrol.sh (.bat)

  • Watch the example project being built

    • http://localhost:8080/cruisecontrol

  • Modify config.xml to include your own project


Ant references
Ant References Diagram)

  • http://ant.apache.org

  • http://codefeed.com/tutorial/ant_intro.html

  • http://blog.ideoplex.com/software/java/

  • http://www.iseran.com/Java/ant/tutorial/ant_tutorial.html

  • http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-10-2000/jw-1020-ant.html


Maven references
Maven References Diagram)

  • http://maven.apache.org/

  • http://www.sandcastsoftware.com/articlesandtutorials/index.html

  • http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-maven/

  • http://www.jpox.org/docs/1_1/tutorials/maven.html


Further reading
Further Reading Diagram)

[Duvall 2007]

  • Paul M. Duvall, Steve Matyas and Andrew Glover: Continuous Integration. Improving Software Quality and Reducing Risk, Addison Wesley, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2007


Tomorrow s exercise
Tomorrow’s Exercise Diagram)

  • Goal: Being able to set up and manage continuous integration

  • Team-based organization: The exercise is team-based

    • We recommend a team size of 5 people (4-6)

    • Choose a team leader

  • Equipment:

    • Bring at least 2 laptops per team to the class room

  • Preparations (Mandatory, by midnight)

    • E-Mail the team member names to naughton@in.tum.de

    • Set up Eclipse on at least one of the team laptops

    • Check out and study the Bumpers project using the information available on the exerciseportal : https://wwwbruegge.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/twiki/bin/view/Lehrstuhl/POMSS09Exercises

  • Additional details

    • Will be distributed at the beginning of the exercise session.



Backup slides
Backup Slides Diagram)


Examples of concrete ant tasks
Examples of concrete Ant Tasks Diagram)

Each Ant Task is a Java application.

Custom tasks can be implemented in Java to support

custom needs.


Another ant example
Another Ant Example Diagram)

<project name="Asteroids" default=”compile" basedir=".">

<target name="compile" >

<mkdir dir="classes"/>

<javac srcdir="src" destdir="classes” />

<copy todir="classes/org/globalse/oose/asteroids">

<fileset dir="src/org/globalse/oose/asteroids">

<include name="**/*.gif"/>

<include name="**/*.wav"/>

<exclude name="**/*.java"/>

</fileset>

</copy>

</target>

<target name="jar" depends="compile">

<jar destfile=”Asteroids.jar” basedir=”classes” />

</target>

</project>


Another ant example 2
Another Ant Example (2) Diagram)

% ant compile

Buildfile: build.xml

compile:

[mkdir] Created dir: /Users/wolft/Asteroids/classes

[javac] Compiling 12 source files to /Users/wolft/Asteroids/classes

[copy] Copying 6 files to /Users/wolft/Asteroids/classes/org/globalse/oose/asteroids

BUILD SUCCESSFUL

Total time: 6 seconds


Another ant example 3
Another Ant Example (3) Diagram)

% ant jar

Buildfile: build.xml

compile:

jar:

[jar] Building jar: /Users/wolft/Asteroids/Asteroids.jar

BUILD SUCCESSFUL

Total time: 2 seconds