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Kelso High School. English Department. ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’. Chapters Twenty One, Twenty Two, Twenty Three, Twenty Four, Twenty Five– Learning Intentions. Plot Summary / Key Incidents Characterisation – Jem Finch Characterisation – Atticus Finch Characterisation – Bob Ewell

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kelso high school

Kelso High School

English Department

chapters twenty one twenty two twenty three twenty four twenty five learning intentions
Chapters Twenty One, Twenty Two, Twenty Three, Twenty Four, Twenty Five– Learning Intentions
  • Plot Summary / Key Incidents
  • Characterisation – Jem Finch
  • Characterisation – Atticus Finch
  • Characterisation – Bob Ewell
  • Characterisation - Dill
  • Characterisation – Tom Robinson
  • Theme - Prejudice and Intolerance
  • Theme – Innocence
  • Theme – Growing Up
  • Symbolism
plot summary key incidents
Plot Summary / Key Incidents
  • Chapters 22-25 Summer - September 1935
  • Jem is upset by the verdict.
  • The black community send gifts to Atticus to show their appreciation.
  • Bob Ewell spits at Atticus and vows revenge.
  • Tom tries to escape from jail and is shot dead.
characterisation jem
Characterisation – Jem
  • He is still upset by the verdict and “weeps bitterly” and tells Atticus, “It ain’t right”.
characterisation atticus
Characterisation - Atticus
  • Atticus appears strained by the verdict.
  • He is bitter about the lack of outrage on the part of Maycomb to the verdict

“Seems that only children weep”

  • The black community, however, show their appreciation by sending him food.
characterisation atticus1
Characterisation - Atticus
  • He is calm enough to walk away when Bob Ewell spits in his face and threatens him - “I wish – Bob Ewell wouldn’t chew tobacco,’ was all Atticus said about it.”
  • He is extraordinarily reasonable in:

(i) saying that he would rather Bob Ewell vent

his anger on him rather than on “that houseful

of children there”

(ii) trying to persuade the children to see the situation

from Bob Ewell’s point of view.

  • He makes a mistake, however, in underestimating how angry Bob Ewell is about the court case.
characterisation bob ewell
Characterisation – Bob Ewell
  • His negative portrayal continues:

He spits in Atticus’s face and threatens him

He is suspected of breaking into

Judge Taylor’s house

Aunt Alexandra describes him as having

a ‘permanent running grudge against

everyone involved in the trial”

characterisation dill
Characterisation: Dill
  • Dill is upset by the unfairness of the verdict

“ I think I’ll be a clown when I

get grown …”

  • He is disillusioned and so angry with people that he wants instead to separate himself from them and become a clown who laughs at them.
characterisation tom robinson
Characterisation – Tom Robinson
  • Tom never seems to get angry about his situation, even though he has been unfairly accused and unfairly convicted.
  • He does, however, lose faith in the justice system which is why he tries to escape. He lost his faith in “white men’s chances”.
  • He is shot seventeen times by the guards trying to escape.
  • His death is described in the Maycomb Tribune as a “senseless slaughter”.
theme prejudice intolerance
Theme – Prejudice & Intolerance
  • Mr Dolphus Raymond recognises the prejudice and intolerance of Maycomb:

“You haven’t seen enough of the world yet,” he tells Scout

(when commenting on how special and good her father is, and her innocent belief in human goodness).

“You haven’t even seen this town, but all you gotta do is

step back inside the courthouse”.

theme prejudice and intolerance
Theme: Prejudice and Intolerance
  • The missionary ladies, led by MrsMerriweather, complain that Atticus shouldn’t have stirred up trouble by defending Tom.
  • Portrayed as hypocritical, “MrsMerriweather’s large brown eyes always filled up with tears when she considered the oppressed”, [in Africa]. They talk about helping black people in Africa, but don’t recognise how they mistreat black people in their own town.
  • Maycomb loses interest in Tom’s death after only two days. It seems his trial has changed nothing, “Maycomb was interested by the news of Tom’s death for perhaps two days”.
theme innocence
Theme: Innocence
  • Jem does not understand the flaws in the legal system.
  • He does not understand that laws can only be changed when people want them changed.
theme growing up
Theme – Growing Up
  • Physically, Jem is growing up. He shows Scout his chest hair and is thinking of trying out for football.
  • Emotionally he is growing up. He realises that things aren’t always as they seem. He’d always thought that “Maycombfolks were the best folks in the world”, and he is disappointed to learn that they are not.
theme growing up1
Theme: Growing up
  • He learns that in life the just / right thing is not always done.
  • He learns how the justice system in America really works. Atticus tells him that “when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s, the white man always wins”.
  • He also learns from Atticus that the world is sexist as Miss Maudie could never sit on a jury because she is a woman.
  • Scout is learning to become more considerate and put other people’s feelings before her own. She sits with the ladies at the Missionary Tea because she knows it will please her aunt.
theme growing up2
Theme: Growing Up
  • Scout is excited about crushing the roly-poly bug which conveys her as a child.
  • Jem, who is now sensitive to the vulnerability of those who are oppressed, gets her to leave the defenceless insect alone.
symbolism mr dolphus raymond
Symbolism – Mr Dolphus Raymond
  • His sitting outside the courtroom is appropriate because he does not belong inside with the rest of the white people because he does not share their prejudice.
symbolism mr underwood s article
Symbolism – Mr Underwood’s article
  • The article states, “sin to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting or escaping”.
  • Underwood “likened Tom’s death to the senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children”
  • Symbolism makes clear that it is wrong to kill creatures who do no harm.
symbolism the insect
Symbolism – The Insect
  • Jem prevents Scout from killing insects because “they don’t bother you”.
  • This is reminiscent of mockingbird symbol that it is wrong to kill creatures who do you no harm.
symbolism the giant
Symbolism – “The Giant”
  • When Helen Robinson is told of Tom’s death she falls to the ground “like a giant with a big foot just came along and stepped on her”.
  • Is white society the giant?
success criteria chapters twenty two twenty three twenty four and twenty five
Success Criteria : Chapters Twenty Two, Twenty Three, Twenty Four and Twenty Five
  • Plot Summary / Key Incidents
  • Structure
  • Characterisation – Jem Finch
  • Characterisation – Atticus Finch
  • Characterisation – Bob Ewell
  • Characterisation – Dill
  • Characterisation – Tom Robinson
  • Theme - Prejudice and Intolerance
  • Theme – Innocence
  • Theme – Growing Up
  • Symbolism