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The Middle and New Kingdoms. The Big Idea During the Middle and New Kingdoms, order and greatness were restored in Egypt. Main Ideas The Middle Kingdom was a period of stable government between periods of disorder.

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The middle and new kingdoms
The Middle and New Kingdoms

  • The Big Idea

  • During the Middle and New Kingdoms, order and greatness were restored in Egypt.

  • Main Ideas

  • The Middle Kingdom was a period of stable government between periods of disorder.

  • The New Kingdom was the peak of Egyptian trade and military power, but their greatness did not last.

  • Work and daily life were different among Egypt’s social classes.


Main idea 1 the middle kingdom was a period of stable government between periods of disorder
Main Idea 1: The Middle Kingdom was a period of stable government between periods of disorder.

Following a period of competition for power between the nobles and the pharaohs, the Middle Kingdom began.

Egypt fell into disorder around 1750 BC. A group called the Hyksos invaded and ruled the region for

200 years.

The Egyptians fought back, and Ahmose of Thebes declared himself king and drove the Hyksos out of Egypt, beginning the New Kingdom.


The middle and new kingdoms

While Egyptian civilization was spreading along the Nile, neighboring cultures grew as well. Trade and movement of people and ideas helped to shape and develop cultures. Other cultures had their effect on Egypt.


The middle and new kingdoms

Following the Old Kingdom, Egypt entered into the neighboring cultures grew as well. Middle Kingdom. Egypt’s contact with other parts of the world increased. Pharaohs armies conquered Nubia’s gold mines.


The middle and new kingdoms

Trade increased between Egypt and the peoples of the Fertile Crescent. People began to move from the Fertile Crescent to the delta region. These settlers were called the Hyksos.


The middle and new kingdoms

Using horses, chariots, bronze weapons and bows and arrows, the Hyksos, Greek for “rulers of hill lands “ ruled Lower Egypt.


The middle and new kingdoms

The Ancient Egyptians lost Lower Egypt to the Hyksos because of the superior weapons of the Hyksos.


The middle and new kingdoms

About 100 years later, having learned to use the type of weapons and chariots used by the Hyksos, the Egyptians, behind Pharaoh Ahmose, defeated the Hyksos, and ruled lands from the delta to Nubia.


The middle and new kingdoms

The defeat of the Hyksos began the period in Egyptian history called the New Kingdom. Pharaoh Ahmose vowed that outsiders would never again control any part of Egypt.


The middle and new kingdoms
Main Idea 2: history called the New Kingdom.The New Kingdom was the peak of Egyptian trade and military power, but their greatness did not last.

  • Fearing future invasions, the Egyptians took control of all possible invasion routes into the kingdom.

  • Egypt took over vast lands and was the leading military power in the area.

  • Egypt became rich because of the lands it conquered.


The middle and new kingdoms

During the New Kingdom period, Egypt’s leaders worked to win back lands lost in war, conquering territory in the Fertile Crescent and Nubia.

This provided Egypt with more resources than just farming. Egypt became rich and powerful.


The middle and new kingdoms

Egyptian sailing ships win back lands lost in war, conquering territory in the Fertile Crescent and loaded with jewelry, linen cloth and papyrus sailed to what are today Lebanon and Syria.



The middle and new kingdoms

Ostrich feathers treasures used in clothing were gathered in Nubia.


The middle and new kingdoms

Egypt’s most important trading partner was treasuresKush.

ebony

copper

Leopard skins

gold

ivory


The middle and new kingdoms

Caravans treasures of men and pack animals brought these treasures out of Kush and back into Egypt. Back in Egypt, craftsworkers turned these materials into furniture, jewelry, and other fine goods for the Pharaoh and the wealthy.


Growth and effects of trade
Growth and Effects of Trade treasures

  • Conquests brought traders into contact with distant lands, and trade routes, or paths followed by traders, developed.

  • Queen Hatshepsut encouraged trade and used the profits to support the arts and architecture.

  • Led by Ramses the Great, Egypt fought invaders formany years, leaving their empire diminished.


The middle and new kingdoms

One pharaoh, treasuresHatshepsut, whose name means, “Foremost of the Noble Ladies,” expanded trade well beyond the borders of Egypt’s empire.


The middle and new kingdoms

Hatshepsut treasures was a princess and the wife of a pharaoh who seized the chance to become pharaoh when her husbanddied.

Temple of Hatshepsut


The middle and new kingdoms

Hatshepsut organized the biggest trading expedition of her career to Punt, south of Egypt. Huge caravans of scribes, soldiers, artists and attendants loaded cargo onto five ships for the journey south.


The middle and new kingdoms

In exchange for jewelry, papyrus, and bronze weapons, Hatshepsut received gold, perfume, ivory, incense, leopard skins, and even live apes.


The middle and new kingdoms

Scribes Hatshepsut received gold, perfume, ivory, incense, leopard skins, and even live apes.carefully recorded the exact number of goods loaded upon the ships.

Hatshepsut’s expedition lasted two years.


The middle and new kingdoms

Trade goods were not the only things that moved from place to place. Ideas and skills spread too. Scribes wrote down this knowledge, such as medical books, which told how to cure illnesses.


Main idea 3 work and daily life were different among egypt s social classes
Main Idea 3: to place. Work and daily life were different among Egypt’s social classes.

  • The complex society required people to take on many different kinds of jobs.

  • Family life was very important in Egyptian society, and most Egyptians lived in their own homes.

    • Women had many legal rights, including owning property, making contracts, and divorcing their husbands.


Egyptian jobs
Egyptian Jobs to place.

Scribes

Few people were more respected than scribes. They did not have to pay taxes, and many became wealthy.

Artisans, Artists, and Architects

These jobs required advanced skills and were also very admired in Egypt.

Merchants and Traders

Although trade was important, few held these positions. Some had to travel very long distances to buy and sell goods.


The middle and new kingdoms

Economy to place.

The way people manage money and resources for the production of goods and services.


Additional egyptian jobs
Additional Egyptian Jobs to place.

Soldiers

Egypt created a permanent army that offered soldiers a chance to rise in social status and receive land as payment.

Farmers and Other Peasants

This group made up the vast majority of the population. They grew crops to support their families and to pay taxes.

Slaves

Slaves were usually criminals or prisoners. They had some legal rights, however.


The middle and new kingdoms

Papyrus: to place.

A kind of paper made from a reed plant growing along the Nile. The ancient Egyptians used it for writing.


The middle and new kingdoms

Hieroglyphics: to place.

The ancient Egyptian system of writing that used symbols to stand for objects, ideas or sounds.


The middle and new kingdoms

The writing system of Egypt, called hieroglyphics, provided a way for government workers to communicate over long distances.