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The Reproductive System. Chapter 34 Ms. Luaces Honors Biology. 34.3 Sexual Development. Sex hormones determine the pattern of development Females respond to estrogens , which stimulate breast development, widening of the hips, and egg production

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the reproductive system

The Reproductive System

Chapter 34

Ms. Luaces

Honors Biology

34 3 sexual development
34.3 Sexual Development
  • Sex hormones determine the pattern of development
    • Females respond to estrogens, which stimulate breast development, widening of the hips, and egg production
    • Males respond to testosterone, which stimulates growth of facial hair, increased muscular development, and deepening of the voice
    • Most of these changes occur during puberty (ages 9-15) when the hypothalamus signals the pituitary to produce 2 hormones: FSH and LH
34 3 male reproductive system
34.3 Male Reproductive System
  • Testosterone stimulates puberty, which will result in the ability to reproduce through the production of sperm
34 3 male reproductive system1
34.3 Male Reproductive System
  • Some important structures:
    • Testes: site of sperm production
    • Scrotum: holds the testes
    • Seminiferous tubules: site of sperm development
    • Epididymis: site of sperm maturation & storage
    • Vas deferens: merges with urethra, opening to release sperm
    • Semen: a mixture of sperm and lubricating seminal fluid
34 3 female reproductive system
34.3 Female Reproductive System
  • FSH stimulates ovaries to produce egg cells and prepares the female’s body to nourish a developing embryo
  • One ovary usually produces and releases 1 mature ovum every 28 days: menstruation
34 3 female reproductive system1
34.3 Female Reproductive System
  • Some important structures:
    • Fallopian tubes: Where the egg is released into and awaits a sperm for fertilization
    • Uterus: Where the growing embryo will develop
    • Cervix: The opening to the uterus
    • Vagina: Entrance into the female reproductive system; egg and uterine lining will be discarded through here
34 3 female reproductive system2
34.3 Female Reproductive System
  • Menstruation is split into 4 phases:
    • Follicular phase: Pituitary secretes FSH & LH, stimulates estrogen release and causes the lining of the uterus to thicken (~12 days)
    • Ovulation: releases an egg into the fallopian tube for fertilization (~1-2 days)
    • Luteal Phase: Corpus luteum continues to release estrogen and progesterone, growing the uterine lining in prep for an embryo (~6 days)
    • Menstruation: unfertilized egg, lining of uterus and blood are discarded (~5-7 days)
      • Menopause: the permanent stop of the menstrual cycle at about age 40
sexually transmitted diseases std s
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s)
  • 1 in 4 girls age 14-19 are infected with an STD, which can include:
    • Bacterial STD’s: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis
    • Viral STD’s: Hepatitis B, Genital Herpes, Genital Warts (HPV) & AIDS
    • How do you prevent an STD? Abstinence is the only 100% effective method. Condoms cannot completely guard from STD’s!!
34 4 fertilization development
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • The fusion of a sperm and egg cell is called fertilization
    • Usually occurs in the fallopian tube
    • Once fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg is called a zygote
    • Two eggs can be fertilized at the same time by different sperm – fraternal twins
    • One egg can be fertilized and split into two separate zygotes – identical twins
34 4 fertilization development1
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • About 6-7 days after fertilization, the blastocyst attaches to the wall of the uterus – known as implantation
    • Now it undergoes differentiation (gastrulation) – various types of tissue of the body are formed, including ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Eventually, neurulation takes places also (making of the nervous system)
34 4 fertilization development2
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • The placenta will protect and nourish the embryo, allowing exchange of oxygen and nutrients with the mother
    • Mother and baby blood do not mix
34 4 fertilization development3
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • After 8 weeks, the embryo is now called a fetus.
    • Most major organs fully formed
  • During months 4-6, the fetal heart becomes large enough to hear through a stethoscope, the bone develops, and the mother may be able to feel the baby
34 4 fertilization development4
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • During months 7-9, the fetus matures, gains weight, and completes the development of lungs and the nervous system
    • Babies born before 8 months are premature and may have breathing problems
34 4 fertilization development5
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • Childbirth is signaled by the release of the hormone oxytocin, which stimulates contractions of the uterus and starts labor
    • Once the cervix is open, the baby is able to pass through the birth canal
    • A babies first cough or cry helps to rid the lungs of fluid. The umbilical cord will be clamped and cut
34 4 fertilization development6
34.4 Fertilization & Development
  • The placenta and amniotic sac will also be dispelled after birth
  • Prolactin hormone will be released and stimulate the production of milk
    • AIDS, Rubella, drugs, alcohol and smoking can harm the babies development