STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE INTERACTION IN THE CLASSROOMSHELTERED INSTRUCTION: STRATEGIES & INTERACTION
Quote "One of the greatest discoveries a man makes, one of his great surprises, is to find he can do what he was afraid he could not do." Henry Ford
Today's Objectives Language Objectives • Participants will exploreBest Practices for several components of Sheltered Instruction and discuss how to apply these components in the classroom. • Participants will create and apply several interactive peer-to-peer oral techniques (IPOTs) that promote comprehensible output among ELs of all ages. Content Objectives
What Is Sheltered Instruction ? • A means to deliver grade level subject matter content in a manner that is accessible to all learners • Instruction delivered by a core teacher • Students receive comprehensible core content instruction throughout the day. • Instructional strategies that scaffold the content learning by building background knowledge and through the use of visuals, gestures, manipulatives, paraphrasing, etc. • Lessons have clear grade level, content and language objectives
Sheltered InstructionComponents for Best Practices 1- Preparation 2- Building Background 3- Comprehensible Input 4- Strategies 5- Interaction 6- Practice/Application 7- Lesson Delivery 8- Review/Assessment Echevarria, Short, & Vogt (2000, 2004, 2008)
Sheltered Instruction Continued Preparation Building Background Lesson Delivery Instruction Comprehensible Input Practice/ Application Strategies Interaction Review/Assessment
SIOP ComponentInteraction “Use it or lose it” Is a saying that conveys what we know from our own experience in learning language If one doesn’t practice using the language, it is difficult to maintain it (Day, 1998)
SIOP ComponentInteraction • Language development is active, not passive • Children learn their first language with the assistance of adults and others who encourage, model, paraphrase , and acknowledge • Language is the primary vehicle for intellectual development (Vygotsky)
SIOP Component Interaction • Language affects not only communication, but learning and acquisition of knowledge • Research consistently shows that teachers dominate the linguistic environment of the classroom (CREDE, 2000)
SIOP ComponentInteraction • Reading comprehension skills and writing skills are positively correlated with oral language proficiency • Increased effort is critical in order for students to develop important oral language skills (Geva, 2006)
SIOP ComponentInteraction • Frequent Opportunities for Student Interaction and Discussion lead to: • Increased Motivation • Increased Attention • More Processing Time • Varied Grouping Configurations • Opportunity for Students to Clarify Key Concepts • Increased Vocabulary & Language Proficiency
What is InteractionAccording to SIOP • Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion between teacher/student and among students, which encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts • Grouping configurations support language and content objectives of the lesson • Sufficient wait time for student responses consistently provided • Ample opportunities for students to clarify key concepts in L1 as needed with aide, peer, or L1 text
Grouping Considerations Students choose Teacher chooses Consider pairing/grouping as a means of scaffolding Consider language proficiency Consider social elements Gender Try to be intentional when forming groups and reconfigure them often
Engagementstrategies to create pairs or groups Numbered heads Popsicle sticks Colored stickers or colored index cards Use rank ordered lists per academic subject to create leveled groups (highs with mediums & lows with mediums) Use Selector Tools CD Team Timer device Use proficiency levels for ELs to create groups (ask your EL teacher for this info.)
I P O T s Interaction Lesson Delivery • Interactive • Peer-to-Peer • Oral • Techniques Practice/ Application Comprehensible Input Building Background Strategies Preparation Instruction Review/ Assessment The term IPOTs was named by Dr. Susan Spezzini,PhD, University of Alabama Birmingham
IPOTs What Are IPOTS? Do you recognize these? Do you use these? 12-Roaming Reporter 13-Carousel Charts 14-Numbered Card Impromptu 15-Discovery Channel 16-Cloze Activity with Peer 17-Gap-Filling Tango 18-Matching with manipulatives 19-Classifying & Sequencing 20-Creating Poetry 21-Chants, Rap, and Songs 22-Hot Onion Review 1-Turn & Tell 2-Favorite Numbers 3-All of your Names 4-Favorite Room 5-Imaginary Photos 6-Adding to Circle 7-Creating Folk Tale 8-Puppets 9-Starting at the End 10-Concentric Circles 11-Parallel Lines
Putting IPOTs to Practice • Each group will be given an IPOT activity • You will design and demonstrate your IPOT using any specific content that is currently being taught under the ACOS • Be creative! • Groups will present IPOTs at specific times throughout the workshop • Spend 15 minutes to develop your IPOT Activity
The Purpose • The purpose of the SIOP Strategies component is to examine our strategy instruction, not just the strategies that we employ. • The purpose of strategy instruction is to help students to access memory, make connections, solve problems, and monitor their own learning.
What are Strategies? • Strategies have been described as "special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information." (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994). • Teachers model and scaffold strategies, working toward independent competence. • Teachers also push students beyond content knowledge to higher order skills including critical analysis and inquiry.
Why Teach Strategies? • Teaching explicit learning strategies improves reading and learning • Helps ELs acquire the tools they need to approach learning tasks and solve problems with assistance, as part of a team or independently.
THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION How do we teach strategies? • Through careful modeling and scaffolding • Through teaching a range of meta-cognitive, cognitive, and affective strategies • Through repeated practice so that students acquire procedural knowledge of one strategy before introducing another.
3 Types of strategies Meta-Cognitive Thinking About Thinking Cognitive Active Learning Social/Affective Interactive Learning Questioning Techniques High-Order Thinking Scaffolding Techniques Building Independence!
STRATEGIES ACTIVITY • Divide participants into three sections • Section I will divide into several groups and compose a list of Cognitive strategies they use in the classroom • Section II will divide into several groups and compose a list of Meta-Cognitive strategiesthey use in the classroom • Section III will divide into several groups and compose a list of Social/Affective strategies they use in the classroom • Each group will assign one person to write their strategies on the blank chart paper hanging up in the room • One person from each three sections will be called upon to share strategies with the whole group
The GIST of It Activity Summarization procedure assists students in “getting the gist” from extended text • Read only one article from Handout 1 per table ( Cognitive, meta-cognitive, social, or affective) • After reading underline 10 or more words or concepts that are deemed “most important” • Together, write a summary statement or two using as many words as possible. • Write a topic sentence to precede summary sentences.
Cognitive Strategies • Organized learning through self-regulated learning • Directly related to individual learning tasks • Used when learners physically and mentally manipulate material • Used when students apply a specific technique to a learning task
Examples of Cognitive Strategies • Previewing a story prior to reading • Establishing a purpose for reading • Consciously making connections between personal experiences and what is happening in the story • Taking notes during a lecture • Completing a graphic organizer • Creating a semantic map • Finding Key Vocabulary • Mnemonics
Meta Cognitive Strategy Purposefully monitoring our thinking • Matching thinking and problem solving to learning situations • Clarifying purposes for learning • Monitoring one’s own comprehension through self questioning • Taking corrective action if understanding fails
Examples of Meta-Cognitive Strategies • Predicting / Inferring • Self-questioning • Monitoring / clarifying • Evaluating • Summarizing • Visualizing
Social/affective Strategy Social and Affective influences on learning • Examples • When students interact with each other to clarify a confusing point • Participation in group discussions or cooperative learning groups to solve a problem
What Are Your Own Learning Strategies? Identify a challenge you have faced in the last month. • Read Handout 2 • Answer the questions • Share with one partner • Whole group
Continuum of Strategies • Teacher-Centered • Lecture • Direct Instruction • Demonstration • Recitation • Teacher-Assisted • Drill and practice • Discovery Learning • Brainstorming • Discussion • Peer-Assisted • Role playing • Peer tutoring • Reciprocal teaching • Cooperative learn
A memory system often involving visualization and/or acronyms. Pi Mnemonics – the number of letters in each word correspond to a digit. How I wish I could calculate pi. Mnemonics • Order of planets • A Very Easy Method: Just Set Up Nine Planets. • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
SQP2RS An instructional framework for teaching content with expository texts, that includes steps. Surveying – scanning the text to be read for 1 – 2 minutes. Questioning – having students generate questions likely to be answered by reading the text, with teacher guidance Predicting – stating 1 – 3 things students think they will learn based on the questions that were generated Reading – searching for answers to questions and formulating new ones for the next section of text to be read. Summarizing – Orally or in writing summarizing the text’s key concepts
GIST Summarization procedure assists students in “getting the gist” from extended text • Students and teacher read a section of text printed on a transparency • After reading, assist students in underlining 10 or more words or concepts that are deemed “most important” • List words on the board • Together, write a summary statement or two using as many words as possible. • Write a topic sentence to precede summary sentences.
Rehearsal Strategies Used when verbatim recall information is needed • Visual aids (flash cards) • Underlining • Note-taking
Graphic Organizers • Graphic representation of key concepts and vocabulary • Teachers present as schematic diagrams • Students use them to organize information • Venn diagrams • Timelines • Flow charts • Semantic maps
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERACTIVITY Using the graphic organizer at your tables • Discuss why the organizer is valuable • How will you specifically teach your students to use this graphic organizer? • Fill in your graphic organizer using any topic you desire • Select one person per group to teach us, as if we are students, how to use the graphic organizer
Comprehension Strategies STRATEGIES • Enhanced when teachers incorporate instruction that includes strategies • Prediction, self-questioning, monitoring, determining importance, summarizing • The more they are taught explicitly and practiced, the more likely students will use them.
Scaffolding Techniques From Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development • ZPD is the difference between what a child can accomplish alone and what a child can accomplish with assistance of a more experienced individual. • 2 types of scaffolding • Verbal Scaffolding • Procedural Scaffolding
Verbal Scaffolding • Use of prompting, questioning, and elaboration to facilitate students’ movement to higher levels of language proficiency, comprehension, and thinking.
Verbal Scaffolding Examples • Paraphrasing – restating a students’ response in order to model correct English usage • Using “think-alouds” – carefully structured models of how effective strategy users think and monitor their understanding • Reinforcing contextual definitions – placing the definition of a word within the statement
Variety of Questions to Promote Higher-Order Thinking Conversational Proficiency Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Academic Proficiency Dr. J. Cummins
Importance of Questioning • Special attention should be given to those at the top four levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy • Researchers have found that of approximately 80,000 questions the average teacher asks annually, 80 percent of them are at the knowledge level. • Teachers are encouraged to assist students in becoming strategic when they teach them how to determine levels of questions they are asked.