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Part One: What Are Language Learning Strategies?. Anna Uhl Chamot, Ph.D. The George Washington University Washington, DC. Purposes. Define language learning strategies; Describe research on role of learning strategies in SLA

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slide2

Part One:What Are Language Learning Strategies?

Anna Uhl Chamot, Ph.D.

The George Washington University

Washington, DC

slide3

Purposes

  • Define language learning strategies;
  • Describe research on role of learning strategies in SLA
  • Present a content-based model integrating learning strategies;
  • Share list of content and language learning strategies.
slide5

Learning Strategies ARE:

  • Thoughts and actions that learners use to help them complete a
  • learning task.
  • Ways to understand, remember, and recall information.
  • Ways to practice skills so that they are mastered more easily.
slide6

Learning Strategies

are NOT:

  • Not fixed and permanent.
  • Not teaching strategies.
  • Not learning styles.
  • Not used only by “good language learners.”
  • Not always good strategies!
slide7

What Does the Research Say?

  • All second language learners use strategies - BUT
  • “Good” language learners use more varied strategies and use
  • them more flexibly.
  • Frequent use of learning strategies is correlated to higher self-
  • efficacy.
  • Strategy instruction improves academic performance.
slide9

Research on LanguageLearning Strategies

  • Types of Research:
  • Descriptive
  • Intervention
  • Classroom Applications
slide10

Descriptive Studies

  • Research methods
  • Early studies
  • Later Studies
  • What we have learned
slide11

Intervention Studies

  • Research methods
  • Learning vocabulary
  • Listening and reading
  • Speaking and writing
  • What we have learned
slide12

Classroom Applications

  • Instructional models
  • Teacher development
  • Materials development
  • What we are learning
slide13

Classification Schemes

  • Rubin: Direct and Indirect
  • Wenden: Metacognitive
  • Bialystok: Inferencing, Monitoring, Formal Practice, Functional
  • Practice
  • O’Malley & Chamot: Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social/Affective
  • Oxford: Direct and Indirect
  • Cohen: Language Learning and Language Use
  • Chamot: Metacognitive and Task-Based
slide14

Metacognitive Framework

  • Planning
  • Monitoring/ Problem-solving
  • Evaluating
slide15

Some Research Issues

  • Control of variables
  • Appropriate instrumentation
  • Instructional methodology
  • Language of instruction
  • Type of task and goals
slide16

Challenges…and…Solutions

  • Transmission teaching
  • Student passivity
  • Students prefer rote
  • strategies
  • Difficulty with transfer to
  • new tasks
  • Assessment of learning
  • strategies
slide17

Challenges…and…Solutions

  • Interactive teaching/
  • learning
  • Set learning goals
  • Conduct mini-experiments
  • Provide explicit instruction
  • Focus on self-evaluation
  • Transmission teaching
  • Student passivity
  • Students prefer rote
  • strategies
  • Difficulty with transfer to
  • new tasks
  • Assessment of learning
  • strategies
slide18

Research Directions

  • Younger language learners
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Transfer of strategies - L1 to/from L2
  • Impact of culture and context
  • Intervention studies
  • Development of teacher expertise
slide20

CALLA: The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach

  • COMPONENTS:
  • Authentic Content Subjects
  • Social and Academic Language
  • Learning Strategy Instruction
slide21

Five Instructional Principles in CALLA

  • Access students’ prior knowledge.
  • Provide meaningful communicative and academic tasks.
  • Engage in interactive teaching.
  • Focus on learning processes and strategies.
  • Help students become autonomous learners.
slide22

PREPARATION

EXPANSION

CALLA’S FIVE PHASES

SELF-EVALUATION

PRESENTATION

PRACTICE

slide23

Learning Strategies for Content and Language

  • Metacognitive Strategies
  • Task-Based Strategies
    • Use What You Know
    • Use Your Senses
    • Use Your Organizational Skills
    • Use a Variety of Resources
slide24

Web Sites

  • www.nclrc.org
  • www.calla.ws
  • www.carla.umn.edu
slide25

Part Two: Teaching Language Learning Strategies

Anna Uhl Chamot, Ph.D.

The George Washington University

Washington, DC

slide26

Purposes

  • Provide rationale for teaching learning strategies.
  • Describe models for learning strategy instruction.
  • Explain how to identify students’ current learning strategies.
  • Suggest how to present a new learning strategy.
  • Present guidelines for teaching and assessing learning strategies.
slide27

Rationale for Teaching Learning Strategies

  • Show students how to be better learners.
  • Build students’ self-efficacy.
  • Increase student motivation for learning.
  • Help students become reflective and critical thinkers.
slide28

Models of Learning Strategy Instruction

  • Oxford (1990)
  • Cohen (2011)
  • Grenfell and Harris (1999)
  • Chamot (2009)
  • Chamot et al. (1999)
slide29

Common Features of Models

  • Instruction needs to be:
    • Explicit;
    • Integrated into language class;
    • Modeled by the teacher;
    • Assessed by teachers and students.
slide30

Identifying Students’ Current Learning Strategies

  • Classroom discussions
  • Student polls
  • K-W-L-H activities
  • Small group interviews
  • Think-aloud interviews
  • Learning strategy diaries
slide31

Presenting a New Strategy

  • Teacher models the strategy through a think-aloud;
  • Students describe the teacher’s modeling;
  • Teacher asks, “Why did I do that?” and “Do you ever do that?”
  • Teacher names the strategy;
  • Teacher explains when and how to use it.
slide33

FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES

FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING LEARNING STRATEGIES

PREPARATION

EXPANSION

CALLA’S FIVE PHASES

SELF-EVALUATION

PRESENTATION

PRACTICE

slide34

Preparation

  • Elicit prior knowledge about lesson topic and strategies.
  • Develop key vocabulary.
  • Provide advance organizer for lesson topic and strategies.
slide35

Presentation

  • Show and model the strategy.
  • Name and explain it.
  • Tell when and how to use it.
  • Students tell how they use it.
  • Use visuals and realia!
slide36

Practice

  • Choose a challenging learning task;
  • Name the strategy to practice;
  • Remind students to use a strategy;
  • Ask students to identify strategies.
  • Encourage students to use strategies independently.
  • Call attention to spontaneous use of strategies.
slide37

Self-Evaluation

  • Have students:
    • Discuss how they used the strategy;
    • Keep learning strategy logs;
    • Identify and defend preferred strategies;
    • Reflect on themselves as strategic thinkers.
slide38

Expansion

  • Find new uses/contexts for the strategy.
  • Survey strategies used by others.
  • Teach a learning strategy to a friend or sibling.
  • Collect tips on using strategies.
  • Make a Learning Strategy Book for other students.
slide39

Developing Metacognition

  • Model your own thinking.
  • Students explain their thoughts about learning.
  • Students describe their plan for completing a language task.
  • Students explain how they monitor a task.
  • Students evaluate their own performance on a task.
slide41

Aligning Instructional Objectives and Assessment

  • Write 3 types of objectives (content, language, learning
  • strategies);
  • Identify an assessment for each objective;
  • Develop activities that prepare students for the assessment of
  • each objective.
slide42

Some Assessment Tools

  • Rubrics
  • Performance tests
  • Teacher observation
  • Student self-evaluation
  • Test-taking strategies
  • Standardized tests
slide43

Conclusion

Discussion and Questions

Thank you!