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Chapter 8 Outsourcing, Supplier Relations, and Supply Chain Management

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Chapter 8 Outsourcing, Supplier Relations, and Supply Chain Management
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Chapter 8 Outsourcing, Supplier Relations, and Supply Chain Management

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  1. Chapter 8Outsourcing, Supplier Relations, and Supply Chain Management Gord Alsop Richard Chitty Meghan Cushing Alyson Gausby Seth Jutzi

  2. Agenda • Decision to Make or Buy – Richard • Outsourcing – Alyson • Purchaser-Supplier Relations – Gord • Partnerships and Strategic Alliances – Seth • Reverse Marketing / Supplier Development / SCM – Meghan • Case: Peron Metal Fabricating Inc.

  3. The Decision to Make or Buy • It is becoming more common for firms to outsource activities previously done in-house • This increases the firm’s flexibility allowing them to focus on their core activities

  4. Reasons to Make • Small quantities • Unusual quality requirements • Preserve technological secrets • Obtain lower cost • Minimize idle equipment • Avoid sole-source dependency • Pride

  5. Reasons to Buy • Lack administrative or technical experience in production • Reputation of suppliers • More flexibility of sources and substitutes • Hard to reverse decisions if you decide to make • Acquisition requires less overhead

  6. Gray Zone in Make or Buy • Range of options where not every situation leads to a 100% make or 100% buy option • This may be useful when testing new products • There is no commitment to make or buy

  7. Subcontracting • Subcontracting occurs when primary contractors contract part of their work to other contractors • ie. Construction, aerospace • Beneficial when orders take a long period of time, are extremely costly, or when work is difficult to define

  8. Outsourcing • To Make or not to Make? • Gained prominence in 90s • Public and Private Orgs outsourcing wide range of functions • IS • Mail Rooms • Corporate Travel • Logistics

  9. Why Outsource?

  10. Risks • Loss of control • Higher exit barriers • Exposure to supplier risks • Unexpected fees • Conversion costs • Supply restraints • Unions

  11. Outsourcing Purchasing • Little outsourcing of Supply Activities • Logistics tasks and functions widely outsourced • Decision Making • Matrix • Flowchart • Supply managers- add value to decision

  12. Trends Impacting Supply Management Strategy • Globalization • IT • External customer focus • Product/Process technology • Increasing job complexity • Environmental/Legal issues • Reengineering

  13. The Matching Game:To Make or to Buy

  14. Purchaser-Supplier Relations • Driving force in the trend toward use of the term supply management • Buyer-Supplier goodwill should be cultivated • Progressive companies measure supplier goodwill on a regular basis

  15. Purchaser-Supplier Satisfaction Model

  16. Tools and Techniques for Moving Positions Crunch Tools – Negative measures to shift satisfaction levels • Complete severance of purchases without advanced notice • Refusal to pay bills • Refusal to accept shipments • Use or threat of legal action Stroking Techniques – Positive measures to shift satisfaction level • Long-run commitment contracts • Sharing of internal information • Evidence of willingness to work toward changed behaviour in purchasing organization • Rapid positive response to requests from suppliers

  17. Purchaser-Supplier Relationship Management • Framework underlines need for extensive communications for both parties • Requires substantial coordination work inside purchaser’s organization • Team approach to long-term supplier relations only reasonable option • Immediate, concerted action needs to be taken when either side sees problems or opportunities • Seller’s and purchaser’s personnel need to understand own organizations as well as other’s well • Suppliers also need to develop effective working relationships internally

  18. Types of Suppliers • Unacceptable suppliers • Acceptable suppliers • Good suppliers • Preferred suppliers • Exceptional suppliers

  19. Single Source Relationships Must Add Value Beware of: • Excessive charges • Low quality • Poor delivery • Lack of continuing improvement programs Value is ultimate long-term like cycle costs and benefits.

  20. Traditional Lowest price Specification-driven Short term, reacts to market Trouble avoidance Purchasing’s responsibility Tactical Little sharing of information on both sides Partnership Total cost of ownership End customer-driven Long term Opportunity maximization Cross-functional teams and top management involvement Strategic Both supplier and buyer share short and long term plans Share risk and opportunity Standardization Joint ventures Share data Buyer-Supplier Relationship

  21. The Developmental Path to Partnership

  22. Strategies Decreased average delivery lot size Decreased total number or suppliers Decreased number of sources used per purchased item Increased average contract / agreement length Increased average frequency of delivery to the plant Increased supplier involvement in quality certification programs Outcomes Improved quality of the supplier’s operations / processes Improved quality of incoming goods Decreased supplier’s total cost Decreased buying organization’s total cost Improved supplier’s ability to handle buyer-initiated changes to the agreed-to delivery date Improved buyer’s ability to handle supplier-initiated changes to the agreed-to delivery date Partnering Strategies and Outcomes

  23. The Clock Game

  24. Reverse Marketing/Supplier Development • When no suitable supplier exists, purchaser must create one • For Reverse Marketing the purchaser often approaches the supplier • Persuades supplier to accept order, not other way around • Only alternative other than making part in-house

  25. Purchaser Initiative • Purchaser may quote prices, terms, and conditions • High payoffs for suppliers, hence supplier development • Can apply to suppliers of all sizes

  26. Reasons for Reverse Marketing • Deficiencies in normal industrial marketing • Neither party is often fully aware of all opportunities because of lack of aggressiveness by salesperson or lack of inquisitiveness by purchaser • Certain product lines receive more attention and lag time may exist between time product is introduced and time purchaser is informed • Purchaser aggressiveness ensures future supply

  27. Three Outside Sources Driving Reverse Marketing • Technological – New products, materials and processes • Increase in International Trade – Development of foreign sources of supply • Competitive Advantage in Supply Chain

  28. Supply Chain Management • Managing the entire flow of information, materials and services from raw materials to final consumer • SCM different from supply management which focuses only on relationships

  29. Characteristics of SCM • Info sharing and monitoring • Inventory Management • Evaluations of costs • Joint planning over long-term • Coordination over all levels of business and management • Leadership and Sharing in risk and return necessary

  30. Goals of SCM • Reduce uncertainty and risk • Improve inventory levels, cycle time, processes and service levels • Primary focus of SCM: Optimization

  31. SCM Implementation • Extremely difficult and complex • Supply Network • Diminishing leverage of purchaser

  32. Secret X

  33. Case 8-2: Paron Metal Fabricating Inc.

  34. Case 8-2: Paron Metal Fabricating Inc. • Summary • Donald Mines- Materials Manager • Considering Proposal to outsource manufacturing of outrigger brackets • Company- 3 divisions- operate separately • Trailer • Sandblast/ Paint • Metal fabricating

  35. Manufacture 40 trailers/ yr • 2/3 November- April • Outrigger secures containers • Comprised of 4 parts • Solicited quotes from 3 local companies • Lowest bid $108.20- Mayes Steel

  36. Outsourcing Decision • Solicited quotes from 3 local companies • Lowest bid $108.20- Mayes Steel

  37. Problem Statement • Should Donald Mines chose to outsource all, some or none of the production of outrigger brackets?

  38. Alternatives • Make outrigger brackets in-house • Buy outrigger brackets from Mayes • Make parts T-75 and T-77 in-house and buy T-67, T-69, T-70 from Mayes

  39. Alternative Comparison

  40. Showcase Showdown

  41. Alternative Comparison

  42. To Buy Costs • November to April Demand = 800*213 = 534 EOQ = 61 P = (20*534)/125 = 85 TC = $59,095.38

  43. To Buy Costs • May to October Demand = 266 EOQ = 43 P = 43 TC = $29,710.42 • Yearly cost = $88,805.80

  44. Benefits for buying Reduce and control operational costs Improve company focus Gain access to world-class capabilities Allow firm to focus on core competencies Risks of buying Loss of control Higher exit barriers Exposure to supplier risks Unexpected fees or extra use charges Benefits and Risks of Buying

  45. To Make Costs • Annually: TC = (800*150*1.2) + FC = $172,915.20

  46. Benefits for making Minimize idle equipment Avoid sole source dependency Maintain control over quality Maintain control over supply Risks of making May lose option to outsource in the future May divert attention from core competencies Increased operational costs Lose access to world-class capabilities Benefits and Risks of Making