FOOD SERVICE WORKER. Annual 4 Hour Food Safety Training. Welcome!. Instructor introduction Watch “Digital Health Department” video. Why?. To provide you with the basic understanding of food safety. To maintain industry standards.
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FOOD SERVICE WORKER Annual 4 Hour Food Safety Training
Welcome! • Instructor introduction • Watch “Digital Health Department” video
Why? • To provide you with the basic understanding of food safety. • To maintain industry standards. • Assist managers who are responsible for ensuring food safety. • To reduce or eliminate the incidence of Foodborne Illness (FBI).
Terminal Objective • Describe how, by proper personal hygiene, use of approved food sources, proper cooking and holding temperatures, cleaning and sanitizing, you as a food service worker may prepare meals without the occurrence of foodborne illness.
Chapter 1: Foodborne Illness • Enabling Objectives • Describe foodborne illness • Explain the various symptoms of foodborne illness • Describe the three types of foodborne illness • State the four types of microorganisms that may cause foodborne illness • Explain the acronym FATTOM
What Makes People Sick? • Foodborne Illness • People get sick when the food they eat contains harmful microorganisms called pathogens. • Some pathogens affect you directly (infections). • Some pathogens produce toxins that cause poisoning.
Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) • Potentially Hazardous Foods are defined as foods that allow the rapid growth of harmful microorganisms. • PHF contain moisture • PHF contain nutrients such as proteins and carbohydrates
Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) • Most PHF • Beef • Poultry • Fish • Lamb • Pork • Shellfish • Milk • Eggs • Cooked Vegetables • Tofu • Garlic and oil mixtures • Raw sprouts • Soy protein/ meat alternatives • Baked potatoes • Sliced melons* *Why sliced melons? They grow on the ‘dirty’ ground. They have a protective shell around them, once you cut into that you can contaminate the inside.
Riddle Me This: What ingredient in potato salad can make you sick? How many of you said mayonnaise? WRONG! Believe it or not - it’s potatoes! Where do you find mayo in the grocery store? On the shelf at room temp. Mayo has been “pH modified” to increase the acidity so these organisms cannot live in it. You really don’t have to store mayo in the refrigerator, however it will separate and look nasty but will not make you sick. However, once potatoes are cooked they become Potentially Hazardous Food!!
Microorganisms • Bacteria • Most common cause of FBI • Some produce toxins which cannot be destroyed by cooking • Viruses • Make you sick without knowing • Can be passed easily on unwashed hands • Parasites • Usually tiny worms that live in fish and meats • Cooking to proper temps will kill parasites • Fungi • Commonly spoil food more than making you ill • One may product harmful toxins (Aflatoxin)
Contamination • Food can become contaminated in many ways • Biological – Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites • Chemical – Any chemicals; pesticides, etc • Physical – Dirt, debris, glass, hair, etc • What do you do if you KNOW food is contaminated? Do not take any chances notify your supervisor and discard it!!!
Types of Foodborne Illness • Infection – caused by consuming food that contains living disease-causing microorganisms • Intoxication – Illness caused by consuming food that contains a chemical or a toxin • Toxin-mediated Infection – Illness caused by consuming an organism that then produces a toxin while living inside your intestines (combination of infection & intoxication)
F-A-T-T-O-M • Acronym for all the elements microorganisms need to survive • F – Food • A – Acidity • T – Temperature • T – Time • O – Oxygen • M - Moisture
Symptoms of Foodborne Illness • Foodborne Illness symptoms may include • Abdominal pain/cramps • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Fever • Chills • Headache • Fatigue (tired) • Neurological (dizziness, blurry vision) • Death
High Risk Populations • Certain groups of people are at higher risk for contracting foodborne illness • Children • Elderly • Pregnant women • People taking certain medications • People with certain medical conditions
Your Are The Most Important Aspect of Food Safety! • Good practices • Proper hand washing (most important!) • Good personal hygiene • DO NOT come to work if you are ill • Prevent cross-contamination • Cook to proper temperatures • Hold foods at proper temperatures • Properly thaw foods • Properly clean and sanitize equipment
Chapter 2: Approved Sources • Enabling Objectives • Define approved sources • Army Vet Inspectors (AVI) responsibilities • Define Acceptance Authority
Approved Sources • Approved sources are listed in the Army Veterinary Services “DoD Directory of Sanitarily Approved Food Establishments for Armed Forces Procurement” • But what does this mean? This means that only facilities that have been inspected by federal, state or local health authorities and that maintain compliance with the guidelines are allowed to provide food to military installations.
Approved Sources • Anyone can become an Approved Source, however there is a application process and you will be subject to routine inspections and reviews. • Organizations that are not on the list are not allowed to prepare, serve or sell food or food products aboard any base. • DO NOT use food purchased from roadside vendors, private farmers, your garden or any home canned foods in your facilities.
Approved Sources • Prime Vendor • Serves numerous areas • Based on best value criteria • Army Veterinary Inspectors (AVI) • Inspect at delivery point • Inspect for wholesomeness • Acceptance Authority • Person authorized and trained • Must be in writing • Only PMA, Army Vet, USDA & USDC Inspectors
Chapter 3: Personal Hygiene and Employee Illness • Enabling Objectives • Describe the components which make up good personal hygiene • Why jewelry must not be worn in food preparation areas • Describe when hands should be washed • Explain the symptoms that a manager must be aware of • Explain why the food worker cannot handle food with an infected boil, cut, burn or sore on their fingers, hand, wrist or arms.
Personal Hygiene • Good personal hygiene involves more than just bathing regularly. It also includes such things as: • Clean clothing • Proper hand washing • Avoiding unsanitary habits • Reporting any illnesses • Proper hair restraints • Remove jewelry (a simple wedding band may be worn)
Hand Washing • Step 1 – Wet your hands with water as hot as you can comfortably stand (110°F – or as hot as the faucet should get) • Step 2 – Apply soap and scrub for 15 seconds • Step 3 – Rinse thoroughly • Step 4 – Dry hands with a single use paper towel or warm air dryer You should also use the paper towel to turn off the faucet and to open the door!
Hand Washing • Boring statistics: • Did you know 65 out of 100 people (that’s 65%) do NOT wash their hands after using the restroom? Don’t believe me? Watch closely the next time you’re in a public restroom! • Almost 80% of common illnesses are spread by touch
Your turn: • Let’s see how well you wash your hands! • Using the “Glitterbug Potion” apply a small amount to your hands just like you would with lotion • Imagine that you just cut up raw chicken and there is now nasty raw chicken juice on your hands. (YUCK!) • Go to the restroom and wash your hands – when you THINK they are clean come back & look at them under the Ultraviolet Light.
Your Turn: • Surprised by what you saw? • Anything that was glowing is still chicken juice not washed off your hands! • Most common places missed – cuticles, under fingernails, wrist and between fingers. • Use of a nail brush increases effectiveness
When to Wash • Before • Starting work • Putting on gloves • During • Food preparation as necessary • After • Breaks • Using restroom (before & after) • Coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose • Smoking, eating or drinking • Touching raw foods • Using chemicals • Taking out the trash • Touching hair, mouth, eyes and open wounds & sores
Gloves • Gloves are a double edged sword • Used properly they are an excellent tool • However they give a false sense of security • How many times have you seen someone wearing gloves scratch themselves & then touch food? • Gloves are NOT required – but are highly encouraged to prevent “bare hand contact” of foods that are ready to eat.
They’re Everywhere! • Microorganisms grow everywhere • Most are not harmful • Since most are spread by touch its better not to touch food directly. Instead use: • Tongs • Gloves • Forks • Other utensils
Employee Illness • To prevent foodborne illness from occurring, food service employees with illness and infections are restricted from handling food and utensils. • It doesn’t make much sense for someone with a foodborne illness to work with food now does it?
Employee Illness • Do not work if you have a fever & sore throat • Do not work if you have diarrhea • Do not work if you are throwing up • Do not work if you have jaundice (a yellow coloring in the eyes or skin) • Jaundice is a sign of Hepatitis A • Ensure that you cover any cuts, boils or open sores on your hands & arms.
Employee Illness • Employees are required to report to their supervisor when they are ill with: • Hepatitis A • Salmonella • Shigella • E. coli • Norwalk/Norovirus • Supervisors are also require to report these illness directly to us.
Chapter 4: Temperature Control • Enabling Objectives • Identify potentially hazardous foods • Identify the “Temperature Danger Zone” • Explain why food that is being cooled or heated must be moved through the TDZ as quickly as possible • State the proper temperature for hot holding • State the proper temperature for cold holding • Explain when food is considered unsafe to eat
Potentially Hazardous Foods • PHF are moist nutrient-rich foods that have a neutral or slightly acidic pH • Due to the methods used to process these foods, they have a potential for contamination • They have a history of being involved with or the cause of foodborne illness outbreaks
Temperature Danger Zone • The TDZ is between 41°F to 140°F • PHF should not be held between these 2 temperatures for greater than 4 hours • If it has been greater than 4 hours DISCARD IT, because it is UNSAFE!
Temperatures • How do you take proper temps? With a thermometer! • Insert the thermometer into the thickest portion of the food • Most common types: Thermocouple Bimetallic Stem Laser
Temperatures • When is cooked food safe? No matter how you cook it (bake, fry, broil, etc): • Certain foods have to reach certain temperatures in order to be considered safe • Ensure that each food is cooked to it’s proper temperature for an adequate amount of time
Temperatures • Cold Holding • Cold foods must be held at 41°F or below • Not only will this slow down organism growth, it keeps the food fresh longer • Hot Holding • After food has been cooked, it may be a while before it is served use of hot holding ensures the food stays at safe temperatures • Hot foods must be held at 140°F or higher • In either case food must: • Be stirred frequently to distribute temperature evenly • Be cover to help maintain temperature & prevent contamination • Have its temperature checked frequently
Cooling Hot Foods • Foods that are made in advance or foods to be used as leftovers must be cooled properly before storing in a refrigerator • Move through the TDZ as quickly as possible • Remember: only foods that have NOT been served from and have been kept at safe temperatures may be kept as leftovers • Divide into smaller portions first (cut up roasts, distribute soups into smaller/shallow pans, etc) • Portion control will limit the necessity for leftovers
Cooling Hot Foods • Why do you need to cool them first? Why not just place that hot kettle in the refrigerator? • A large pot of chili will take almost 12 days to cool down to 41° - during this time it is in the TDZ and bacteria are growing rampantly • The hot/cool zone will create condensation and allow mold to grow or it may drip from the top into other foods contaminating them • The refrigerator will work over time – prematurely wearing out the cooling pump • The other foods in the refrigerator will now be at higher temperatures, making them unsafe • That’s just 4 too many reasons! Lets look at a much safer method.
Cooling Hot Foods • Two stage cooling • Cool hot foods from whatever temperature they are at (ideally at 140°F) to 70°F within 2 hours • Then cool them from 70°F to 41°F in an additional 2 hours • 4 hours total time • If the first stage only takes 1 hour the extra hour can carry over to the second stage (3 hours) • Do not extend first stage this is the temperature range bacteria grows most! (140°-70°F)
Cooling Hot Foods • So how do we do it? • Ice water bath • Ice cooling paddle • Blast chiller
Thawing Frozen Foods • Foods must be properly thawed out to ensure they are not temperature abused • Ideally thaw under refrigeration – place in the refrigerator a 2-3 days before cooking • Thaw under cool running water • Thaw in a microwave (however it must be cooked immediately) • Thaw as part of the cooking process (frozen hamburger patties on the grill)
Thawing Frozen Foods • Thawing at room temperature is NOT ALLOWED! • How many of you do this? Set foods out on the counter in the sunlight to “thaw” – what’s so bad about it? Temperature abuse, again that food is right in the TDZ! • When thawing in water, NEVER fill the sink or a tub up with hot water – cool running water not only flushes away contaminates and keeps the food at a safe temperature, but it also ensures the drain is not clogged up or backing up sewage!
Leftovers • Only foods that have not been served from and have been held at safe temperatures may be retained as leftovers • Leftovers may only be held for 24 hours • Leftovers must be labeled with name of the product, date prepared and discard date YES! NO! Leftover? Yes or No? Leftover? Yes or No?
Leftovers • Why? This has obviously been served from – Not a Leftover! This has NOT been served from – It’s ok as a Leftover! Leftover? Yes or No? Leftover? Yes or No?
Cold Storage • Air movement – very important! Air must be able to circulate around objects stored in the refrigerator or freezer to ensure adequate cooling. Do not crowd or over stock. • Refrigerator Temp – 32 to 41°F • Freezer Temp – 0°F or below
Chapter 5: Cross Contamination • Enabling Objectives • Define cross contamination • Identify methods to prevent cross contamination • Identify storage conditions that will minimize the potential for cross contamination
Safe Storage Practices • Ensuring food is stored safely is just as important as any other process • General guidelines for storage: • Label everything! Date received • Rotate stock: Do you know FIFO? First-In, First Out; always use your oldest stock first • Store at minimum 6 inches off the floor