Ert 216 4 heat mass transfer sem 2 2011 2012
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ERT 216/4 HEAT & MASS TRANSFER Sem 2/ 2011-2012. Prepared by; Miss Mismisuraya Meor Ahmad School of Bioprocess Engineering University Malaysia Perlis. INTRODUCTION & MECHANISM OF HEAT TRANSFER. INTRODUCTION. Relation of Heat Transfer to Thermodynamics

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Ert 216 4 heat mass transfer sem 2 2011 2012

ERT 216/4HEAT & MASS TRANSFERSem 2/ 2011-2012

Prepared by;

Miss MismisurayaMeor Ahmad

School of Bioprocess Engineering

University Malaysia Perlis







  • Relation of Heat Transfer to Thermodynamics

  • Why we should learn Heat and mass transfer?

  • Heat transfer?

  • The mechanism of heat transfer?

Relation of Heat Transfer to Thermodynamics


  • deals with systems in equilibrium

  • Predict the amount of energy required to change a system from one equilibrium state to another

  • It may not be used to predict how fast the change will take place since the system is not in equilibrium during the process

    Heat transfer supplements the first and second principles of thermodynamics used to establish energy transfer rate

Relation of Heat Transfer to Thermodynamics

  • In thermodynamic, Q are only state function (contain by system)  ∆Q

  • In energy transfer, Q are associated with a process (path function).  δQ

  • “energy transfer: energy can cross the boundries of a closed system only in the form of heat (Q) or work (W)”

V is a state function

W is a path function

Relation of Heat Transfer to Thermodynamics


Cooling of hot steel bar placed in a pail water

THERMODYNAMIC predict the final equilibrium temperature of the steel bar-water combination.

HEAT TRANSFER  predict the temperature of both the bar and the water as a function of time also the temperature of the bar will be after a certain length of time.

Why we should learn Heat and Mass transfer?

“Transport phenomena is the basic chemical engineering unit operations. In simple term it deal with mass transfer, heat transfer and momentum transfer. [Broadkey & Hersey, 1988]”

“Transport phenomena deals with phenomena associated with energy transport (to predict heat exchange performance) mass transport (to describe separation process) and momentum transport (to yield prediction of pressure losses in piping system). [Thompson, 2000]”

Heat Transfer??

  • Heat is an energy transfer across a system boundary due to the temperature different between a system and its surroundings.

  • There are 3 mechanisms of heat transfer

    (1) Conduction: Surface to surface

    (2) Convection: Surface to air

    (3) Radiation: Direct exchange across space

(1) Conduction

  • Direct transfer of heat (surface to surface)

    # Transfer is affected by the ability of the touching objects to conduct heat

  • Thermal conductivity, k

    # expressed as W m-2 K-1

    # It is a physical property for gas, liquid and solid

(1) Conduction

  • The heat is transferred as a result of the energy imparted between adjacent molecules.

  • Conduction also arises from the movement of free electrons in the metals which accounts for the high thermal conductivities

  • In fluids, it occurs as a result of the kinetic energy transfer between one molecule to another

(1) Conduction

Fourier’s Law 

  • Temperature different: T1 and T2 [K]

  • Thermal conductivity: k [W m-1 K-1]

  • Heat transfer area: A [m2]

  • Thickness of the material: x [m]

  • Heat transfer rate by conduction: qc [??]

  • Heat flux: q/A [??]

Since T2>T1, the heat flows from right to left

Fourier’s Law

  • Heat transfer by conduction from a high temperature region to the low temperature region

  • The driving force of this heat transfer is the temperature gradient

Fourier’s Law


The Resistance of heat flow:

  • Rod diameter

  • Rod length

  • Rod material type

  • Temperature difference

Fourier’s Law

Thermal conductivity, k

  • Experiment measurement made to determine the value of k (different material, different k)

  • The k value is a physical property of each solid, liquid and gas material

  • k is strongly temp-dependent

  • Unit W m-1 K-1

Thermal conductivity, k

  • The numerical value of k indicates  how fast heat will flow in a given material.

  • If molecules move fasters (gas), the faster they will transport energy.

  • So, value of k depends on the molecules structure (gas, liquid or solid)

Thermal conductivity, k

  • Gas

  • If temp. higher, the molecules have higher velocities

  • Molecules are in continuous random motion and will colliding with one another and exchanging the energy and momentum

  • The random motion of gas molecules happen whether/ not a temp. gradient exist in gas

  • If a molecules move from higher temp. region to low temp. region, it transport kinetic energy to lower temp. part of system (through collisions molecules)

  • The faster molecules move faster they will transport energy

Thermal conductivity, k

2) Liquid

  • The molecules are move closely space

  • Exchange energy in collision process

    3) Solid

  • Thermal energy conducted in solid by 2 modes: lattice vibration and transport by free electron

Thermal conductivity, k

Why we should know k of each material???

Because to design the equipment in process esp. in storage and transport.

(2) Convection

  • Transfer of heat between an object and air (Surface to air)

  • Transfer of heat by bulk transport and mixing of macroscopic elements of warmer portions with cooler portion in a gas or liquid

    # Transfer is affected by

    i) the speed with which the air is moving

    ii) the ability of the object to conduct heat

(2) Convection

  • The velocity, u reduce to 0 at the plate as a result of viscous action. Because of that, heat must be transferred only by conduction at that point (wall).

  • Convection heat transfer depends on the viscosity and the thermal properties of the fluid (k, cp, ρ)

  • Viscosity influence the velocity profile

  • Boiling & condensation example of convection phenomena

(2) Convection

  • Temperature different between wall and fluid: Tw and Tf [K]

  • Convective heat transfer coefficient: hcv [W m-2 K-1]

  • Heat transfer area: A [m2]

  • Heat transfer rate by convection: qcv [??]

  • Heat flux: q/A [??]

    Also referred to as the “Newton rate equation” or “Newton’s law of cooling”

(2) Convection

Two types:

Forced convection:

# Fluid is forced to flow past a solid surface by a mechanical means

(ii) Natural (free) convection:

# Heat circulation due to fluid density difference resulting from the temperature variation throughout a region of the fluid

(3) Radiation

  • Transfer of energy across the space by means of electromagnetic waves- in the same way as the electromagnetic light waves transmitting light (Direct exchange across space)

(3) Radiation

  • Electromagnetic radiation which is propagated because of temp. different called  thermal radiation

  • Ideal thermal radiation/ black body radiation, will emit energy at a rate proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temp. of the body and directly proportional to it’s surface area.

  • Black-body = Black surface (a piece of metal recovered with carbon black)

q emitted = σ A T4

(3) Radiation

σ = 5.669 x 10-8 W/m2.K4

  • Tefan-Boltzmann Law thermal radiation, it govern only radiation emitted by black-body

  • The net radiant exchange between 2 surface proportional to the different in absolute temperature to the fourth power

q emitted = σ A T4

q emitted = σ A (T14 – T24)

(3) Radiation

  • Emissivity, ϵ relates the radiation on the ‘gray surface’

  • Not all the radiation leaving on surface will reach the other surface since electromagnetic radiation leaving straight line & some be lost to the surroundings. Because of that, 2 new factors will be considered (i) Fϵ: Emissivity function and (ii) FG: Geometric “view factor’ function

(3) Radiation

Radiation in an enclosure

Simple radiation problem is encounter when a heat transfer surface at temp., T1 completely enclosed by a much large surface maintain at temp. T2. So that, the net radiant exchange:

Conclusion: Heat transfer mechanism

  • Heat transfer may take place by 1 or > of 3 mode of mechanism

  • “Situation: Heat conducted through the plate is removed from the plate surface by combination of convection & radiation.”

  • So, the energy balance;

  • Heat conducted through wall = Heat convection + Heat radiation

Conclusion: Heat transfer mechanism

Conduction and convection- heat transfer mechanism through a material medium. Therefore radiation mechanism through electromagnetic radiation (thermal radiation/black body radiation)

Heat Transfer in unit operation

Shell and tube heat exchanger

Heat Transfer in unit operation

  • Example of a chemical/bioprocess??

  • Factors affecting heat transfer rate??

Example 1:

One face of copper plate 3 cm thick is maintained at 400 °C, and the other face is maintained at 100 °C. How much heat is transferred through the plate?

Ans: 3.7 MW/m2

Example 2:

Air at 20 °C blows over a hot plate 50 by 75 cm maintained at 250 °C. The convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2.K. Calculate the heat transfer.

Ans: 2.156 kW

Example 3.:

An electric current is passed through a wire 1 mm diameter and 10 cm long. The wire is submerged in liquid water at atmospheric pressure, and the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h = 5000 W/m2.K, and the water temperature will be 100°C. How much electric power must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114 °C?

Ans: 21.99 W

Example 4:

Two infinite black plates at 800 °C and 300 °C exchange heat by radiation. Calculated the heat transfer per unit area.

Ans: 69.03 kW/m2

Exercise 1:

Calculate the rate of heat flow through a 0.5 m wide, 0.3 m high and 3 mm thick steel plate, having a thermal conductivity of 45 W/m.k when the temp. of the surface at x=0 is maintain at a constant temp. of 198 °C and its temp. at x=3 mm is 199.7 °C.

Exercise 2:

A refrigerator stands in a room where the air temp. is 20 °C. The surface temp. on the outside of the refrigerator is 16 °C, the sides are 30 mm thick and have an equivalent thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/m.k. The heat transfer coefficient on the outside is 10 W/m2.k. Assuming 1D conduction through the sides, calculate the heat flow through refrigerator and the surface temp. on the inside

Assignment 1

Book: J.P. Homan

1) 1-1

2) 1-2

3) 1-3

4) 1-4

5) 1-10

6) 1-16

7) 1-19

8) 1-22

9) 1-29

10) 1-30


  • Fourier’s Law 

    q : Heat transfer rate

    : Temperature gradient in direction of the heat flow

Heat Conduction Analysis- 1D

  • 1-D (plane wall)

  • So, the energy balance


Consider general case where temp. changing with time & heat source present within the body.

Heat Conduction Analysis- 1D

General 1-Dimension Heat Conduction equation:

Heat Conduction Analysis-3D

1) Cartesian coordinates

  • So, the energy balance:

Heat Conduction Analysis- 3D

General 3-Dimension Heat Conduction equation:

1) Cartesian coordinates

If, k = constant

: Thermal Diffusivity of the material

Thermal Diffusivity

# The larger value of α, the faster heat will diffuse through the material.

# So, α can be higher value if

i) Thermal conductivity, K  higher

ii) Thermal heat capasity, ρc  lower

Heat Conduction Analysis- 3D

3-Dimension Heat Conduction equation:

2) Cylindrical coordinates

3) Spherical coordinates

Heat Conduction Analysis- 3D

Cylinder Coordinates 

 Sphere Coordinates

Analysis: conclusion

  • All the general equation (1D & 3D): only used in special case

  • So for developments in future chapter can reduced form of the general equations for several cases of practical interest under specified conditions

Analysis: conclusion

Steady-state 1D heat flow (no heat generation):

Steady-state 1D heat flow in cylinder coordinates (no heat generation):

Steady-state 1D heat flow with heat sources:

2D Steady-state conduction without heat sources: