Skip this Video
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

Security - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Security . CPS120 Introduction to Computer Science Lecture 4. Aspects of Computer Security. A. Hardware B. Files C. Connectivity. Key Areas Addressed by Security. Physical security – how do I keep my hardware and key files safe

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Security ' - aurelia-vaughn

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript



Introduction to Computer Science

Lecture 4

aspects of computer security
Aspects of Computer Security
  • A. Hardware
  • B. Files
  • C. Connectivity
key areas addressed by security
Key Areas Addressed by Security
  • Physical security – how do I keep my hardware and key files safe
  • Password security – what is a good password and how do you set one
  • Computer viruses – what they are and how to protect your computer
  • Network security -- how to protect yourself
  • Firewalls - what the can and can’t do and why they are important for always-on connections
  • Backup strategies - why and how to backup your work
all computers
All Computers
  • Temperature
    • If too high, components malfunction
    • Components generate heat which must be removed
  • Humidity
    • If too high: condensation and corrosion of metal parts
    • If too low: static electricity (very high voltage!)
  • Electric power
    • Irregularities: power spikes, dips, and brown-outs
    • Special care during thunderstorms!
    • Power failure: un-interruptible power supply (UPS)
physical access
Physical Access
  • Access to the computer room
    • Logs of who goes in and out
    • Console security
      • Screen passwords, etc.
  • Access to the physical network
  • Locking laptops, protecting components on desktops, servers, etc.
  • Policies
  • Contingency planning
security principles
Security Principles
  • Access is restricted to safeguard the computer. Use is allowed only with user code and password:
    • User ID:
      • Like hotel room number
      • Gives private access to data files
    • Password:
      • Like hotel room key
  • All users must enter valid user code and password before doing anything
    • Combines who you are and what you know
password cracking
Password Cracking
  • There are many software programs available now that can guess your password if you are using words that are in the English or foreign dictionary
  • When guessing passwords involves simple transformations such as:
    • Converting all the letters in a word to lowercase
    • Applying user specific information about a person to a password
    • Using numeric suffixes
      • The number 1 is far and away the most common suffix. More than all other digits combined
    • Using numeric prefixes
    • The number 1 is the most common prefix. The number 2 is a distant second
    • 0 and 6 are rarely used as prefixes
creating good passwords
Creating Good Passwords
  • In order to be useful in authentication and authorization, a password should meet the following criteria:
    • Passwords must be at least six characters
    • Passwords must include three of four types of characters:
        • Uppercase letters
        • Lowercase letters
        • Numbers
        • Non-alphabetic characters such as punctuation marks
  • Passwords shouldn't contain personal information
pass phrases
  • If you are serious about good password security, get in the habit of using ‘pass-phrases’. For example, it is easy enough to remember a phrase like ‘…born on the 4th of July’, but creating a password from it like bot4thoJ would create a password that meets the criteria discussed above.
virus definition
Virus Definition
  • A computer virus is a computer program that can infect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a copy of itself. A virus, by definition, can't exist by itself. It must infect an executable program.
    • A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt.
other types of viruses
Other Types of Viruses
  • An e-mail virus is not any different from a regular virus; it just has a different mode of transportation ILOVEYOU"
    • Melissa
  • Script viruses are destructive code that does its damage by executing a program on a client machine
  • A macro virus is a type of computer virus that is encoded as a macro embedded in a document
virus software
Virus Software
  • Use of a virus checker regularly is the best way to combat viruses
    • Freeware, shareware, and commercial anti-virus programs are widely available
combating script viruses
Combating Script Viruses
  • The most important thing to do is to check every email you receive, file you download or are sent for a double file type (ie: .txt.vbs, or .html.jse, or whatever).
  • Never save executable attachments from email messages to your computer and run them
    • (files that end with .EXE, .COM, .VBS, and .BAT are executable on Windows computers).
    • Change the default on your machine to open those file types in an editor rather than run them
      • "Hardening your PC"
  • If you want to make your PC more secure in regard to script viruses, you may want to remove the Windows Scripting host from your machine.
anti virus software
Anti-Virus Software
  • Anti-viral software can be set up to run automatically each time you boot up the machine or run an executable. You can also execute anti-viral software manually if you suspect you have had a problem or you have received a suspicious attachment or some sort of un-trusted media.
  • There are two parts to most pieces of anti-viral software; the engine and the definitions.
    • The definitions change all the time. This is the part of anti-viral software that needs to be updated constantly, because the population of viruses changes rapidly, with newly developed viruses springing up along with minor modifications of existing viruses (mutations) appearing constantly.
    • The engine, on the other hand, is static and changes only at major release points. The engine is the driving force behind a virus program that checks for virus signatures on you machine and in your software.
stay current
Stay Current
  • The program you use isn't as important as how often you use it and that you keep it updated with the most recent virus definitions
    • To be effective, antiviral software must be current -- even two-month-old software can be dangerously outdated
other types of malware
Other Types of 'Malware'
  • A worm is a special type of virus that can replicate itself and use memory, but cannot attach itself to other programs
    • 'Code Red'
    • Nimda
  • A Trojan horse is a program that pretends to do something useful, but instead does something nefarious.
    • Trojans aren't infectious
    • Often they place executables on the drive
combating malware
Combating 'Malware'
  • Promptly apply all security patches to all Internet-exposed systems and replace with more secure products those that continually have vulnerabilities exposed.
hardening your system
Hardening Your System
  • The term "hardening" refers to the process of configuring software so as to minimize potential security risks
  • Hardening security-specific applications like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and antiviral tools involves turning on features and setting restrictive access rules
your security profile
Your Security Profile
  • A port is an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device
    • A port is an endpoint to a logical connection
    • The port number identifies what type of port it is
  • Personal computers have various types of ports. In this context
  • A key to determining your computer’s security profile is to determine port usage
what is a firewall
What is a Firewall
  • A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network
  • Firewalls can be both hardware and software, or a combination of both
  • Firewalls are used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet
how does it work
How Does It Work
  • A firewall is analogous to a moat around a medieval castle. In essence, the moat and drawbridge represent a "choke" point for all traffic in and out
  • A single point is much easier to monitor and can be closed if needed
    • All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria
how does it work technically
How Does it Work Technically?
  • Firewalls act as proxy servers, by masking the address of internal machines
  • Or packet filters using a "wall of code" that inspects each individual "packet" of data as it arrives at either side of the firewall
making backups
Making Backups
  • Copy original files onto another medium. This is called "making a backup"
    • Program files:
      • Copy or install the original disks to a hard disk
      • Use the copy and store the originals in a safe place
    • Data files:
      • Copy the originals to another disk or tape
      • Put the backup disk or tape in a safe place
backups for this class
Backups for This Class
  • Diskettes, Zip Disks, CD-R's:For every floppy you own, have a backup copy
  • Hard disk: backup on diskettes, tapes, removable hard disk, CD-RW or networked drive
different types of backups
Different Types of Backups
  • Different types
    • Full
    • Incremental
    • Differential
full backups
Full Backups
  • Includes all files on your drive(s)
    • Advantages
      • Files are easily found when needed
        • All of the most current information can be found on the last backup tape
    • Disadvantages
      • Full backups are redundant backups
      • Full backups take longer to perform and can be very time consuming
incremental backups
Incremental Backups
  • Includes files that were created or changed since the last backup
      • Advantages
        • Incremental backups provide better use of media
        • Much less data storage space required
        • Less time is also required
      • Disadvantages
        • Multiple disks or tapes are needed for restore
        • You may have to search several volumes to find the file you wish to restore
differential backups
Differential Backups
  • Includes all files that were created or modified since last Full backup
    • Advantages
      • Differential backups take less time
      • Provides more efficient restores
      • Maximum of two media sets to perform a full restore
        • The last Full backup and the last Differential backup tape
    • Disadvantages
      • As time goes on a longer and longer time needed for a differential backup
      • The amount of data gets larger and larger each day
backup plans
Backup Plans
  • Backups are performed according to a schedule. For example:
    • Weekly: back up all files ("complete" backup); Often done on the Friday evening
    • Daily: back up only files that have been changed ("incremental" backup)
      • Incremental
      • Differential
contingency plans
Contingency Plans
  • A "system backup plan" is like an insurance policy: a contract with company having a computer system similar to ours or a 'hot' site
    • In case of computer disaster, we can use theirs