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Photosynthesis (Primary Production). Requirements for photosynthesis: sunlight (and chlorophyll to capture energy) nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus..), space CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 + H 2 O. photosynthesis. respiration. sugars, fixed carbon.

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photosynthesis primary production
Photosynthesis (Primary Production)

Requirements for photosynthesis:

  • sunlight (and chlorophyll to capture energy)
  • nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus..), space

CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O

photosynthesis

respiration

sugars, fixed carbon

spatial distribution
Spatial Distribution
  • Fig. 2.1 A spatial classification of marine organisms.
slide3

sperm whale 1150m

giant squid 1500m

octopus, 5000m

deepest fish, 8370m

Trieste, 1960, 10,912m

(Marianas Trench, 10,923m)

light in the ocean
Light in the ocean

Water not very transparent to light

Photic zone = where enough light penetrates for photosynthesis

Range = few meters in coastal zone, to 200 m in clear, tropical ocean

Affected by:

transparency of water

angle of sunlight hitting the water

atmospheric absorption of light

primary production in the sea
Primary Production in the Sea

Factors that Affect Primary Production

  • Fig. 1.21 Fate of sunlight as it enters sea water. The violet and red ends of the visible spectrum are absorbed first.
  • Light in Water.
primary production in the sea1
Primary Production in the Sea
  • Measurement of Primary Production

Fig. 3.20 The results of a hypothetical light- and dark-bottle experiment.

primary production in the sea2
Primary Production in the Sea
  • Fig. 3.22 This phytoplankton bloom along the California coast, was imaged by SeaWiFS on 10-11 August, 2003 for true color (left) and for chlorophyll a concentrations.
primary production in the sea3
Primary Production in the Sea
  • Factors that Affect Primary Production
    • Nutrient Regeneration. Marine producers rely on a number of mechanisms of nutrient regeneration, such as turbulent mixing, convective mixing, and upwelling.
primary production in the sea4
Primary Production in the Sea
  • Nutrient regeneration

Fig. 3.35 Seasonal growth and decline of thermoclines in tropical (top), temperate (center), and polar (bottom) ocean waters.

primary production in the sea5
Primary Production in the Sea
  • Factors that Affect Primary Production
    • Nutrient Regeneration.

Fig. 3.36 Coastal upwelling in the Northern Hemisphere.

primary production in the sea6
Primary Production in the Sea
  • Factors that Affect Primary Production
    • Grazing. Small herbivorous grazers routinely occur at such high concentrations that phytoplankton communities may be destroyed over a period of just a few weeks.
primary production in the sea7
Primary Production in the Sea

Factors that Affect Primary Production

  • Fig. 3.24 Generalized population changes of a prey species and its predator, oscillating between unlimited (solid) and limited (dashed) phases of population growth.
  • Grazing.
contribution to primary production in ocean
Contribution to Primary Production in Ocean
  • One-celled plankton contribute 90%-95% of primary productivity in the ocean
  • Macroalgae (large, attached algae in the coastal zone) contribute 5-10%
marine snow particulate organic matter that originates in the ocean
marine snow= particulate organic matter that originates in the ocean

Formed by collisions of debris

and large particles, or decaying

material, with bacteria and

protists attached. Sinks to bottom,

carrying nutrients away from surface.

e.g., dead pelagic tunicate covered

with bacteria and protists

http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/plankton.html

vertical migration of zooplankton
Vertical migration of zooplankton

Definition: Migration pattern over 24 hrs, typically upwards at

dusk and downwards at dawn,poorly understood,

Why migrate? Several hypotheses:

*Avoid visual predators during daylight at greater depths

and return to shallow zones with abundant food during night

*Save energy during non-feeding daylight time in deeper,

colder water

*Exploit different currents at different depths and remain in

same general area, or ascend to fresh, ungrazed food

resources the next day

Range: up to 200 m (copepods) to 800 m (krill);

speed 10 – 200 m/hour

http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_25.html

vertical migration of zooplankton1
Vertical migration of zooplankton
  • *Consequences:
  • faster transport of organic matter into deep water:
  • animals capture prey at shallower depths and transport it downwards
  • either as their body mass or fecal products; both are faster than sedimentation
  • *Not all individuals migrate the same range at the same time;
  • population will lose some and gain others, enhances genetic mixing
  • *Samples from same depths taken during day and night will differ in
  • species composition and total biomass
  • http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_25.html
vertical migration of zooplankton2
Vertical migration of zooplankton

*Deep Scattering Layers:

False echosound signals by larger zooplankton

(krill, shrimp) and fish, but sometimes also copepods,

makes ocean seem to have a false bottom

Military interest in this DSL (submarines can hide under the layer)

http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_25.html

sexual reproduction
sexual reproduction

Fig. 2.3 The basic components of sexual reproduction. The chromosome arrangement of each cell is shown to the right.

sexual vs asexual reproduction
Sexual vs Asexual Reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction = no genetic recombination: cloning, budding, fission
  • Sexual reproduction = reduction division to produce gametes (half of parent DNA), combine to form a genetically mixed zygote different from either parent