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Chapter 4 Education in UK. Sept. 2005 Xiao Huiyun. Objectives.

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chapter 4 education in uk

Chapter 4 Education in UK

Sept. 2005

Xiao Huiyun

  • If the family is central to people's lives, surely their next most significant experience is their education. In this chapter we will begin with a brief survey of the development of free universal education since the last century, and then take a closer look at the main institutions in which British people are formally educated.
focal questions
Focal Questions
  • What do you think are among the most outstanding changes in the English education system since the 19th century?
  • What does the “streaming” system mean to you? Do you think the system is reasonable? Why?
  • What are some of the recent changes that have taken place in a) primary schools, b) secondary schools, and c) higher education?
  • Is university life in Britain different from that in China? If so, in which aspects?
  • Apart from universities, can you name some other higher and further education institutions in Britain?
  • Presentation by Students – Focal questions 2 & 4
  • Lectures by the teacher
  • Class discussion – Exploitation Activities
  • Assignment for the next chapter
a1 change reform in schools
A1 Change & Reform in Schools
  • Before 1870 school set up by churches, 40% of children aged 10 attended
  • From 1870 onwards government took responsibility for education in response to changes caused by industrial revolution and movement for social & political reform
  • The 1944 Act in England& Wales gave all children the right to free secondary education
  • The tripartite system – at end of primary education children are selected by means of streaming. Those on the top stream (20%) went to grammar schools. The rest went to secondary modern and technical schools
a 1 change reform cont
A 1 Change & Reform cont.
  • 1960s introduction of comprehensive schools – early selection & streaming not fair, equal educational opportunities & meritocracy
  • In 1999 85% of children attended comprehensive schools while 16% went to remaining gr. schools or private schools, problems of streaming still remain, holding back of brighter students, unjustified labelling
a 1 change reform cont1
A 1 Change & Reform cont.
  • Types of Secondary Schools today
  • Comprehensive schools +85%
  • Grammar schools 4%
  • secondary modern schools 4%
  • City Technology Colleges (CTCs )
  • Specialist schools (England only)
a1 change and reform cont
A1 Change and Reform cont.
  • Recent reforms -- 1988 Education Reform Act
  • National Curriculum for 5 – 16 year-olds and regular exams -- National Tests at 7, 11, 14 (p58)
  • Introduction of CTCs -- sponsors & main focus of curriculum
  • More power given to schools to run their affairs within the framework of national curriculum
a 1 change reform cont2
A 1 Change & Reform cont
  • The National Curriculum in England and Wales is divided into four Key Stages (KS), three core subjects (English, Mathematics and Science) and nine non-core foundation subjects. The Key Stages are age-related: KS 1 goes up to age seven, KS 2 from seven to eleven, KS 3 from eleven to fourteen (pre-GCSE) and KS 4 from fourteen to sixteen (preparation for GCSE and equivalent vocational qualifications) -
a1 change reform cont
A1 Change & Reform cont
  • National Curriculum subjects: England
  • English, Mathematics,
  • Science, Design and Technology – this incorporates craft and design, food technology
  • ICT- Information and communications technology
  • History
  • Geography
  • Art and design
  • Music
  • Physical Education
a 1 change reform cont3
A 1 Change & Reform cont.
  • In Scotland there is no legally prescribed national curriculum but the Scottish ExecutiveEducation Department sets out guidelines for teachers. The curriculum in Northern Ireland is set by the Northern Ireland Council for Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment.
a 1 change reform cont4
A 1 Change & Reform cont
  • 1992 all polytechnics and some colleges of higher education become universities.
  • 1997 In universities grants are scrapped in favour of student loans, fee – 1000 pound sterling
  • 1998 National scheme using laptops – expected to spread to all schools in 21st century
a2 schools today primary phase
A2 Schools Today – Primary Phase
  • Pre-school education is available (often on a fee-paying basis) for children aged two to four/five through playgroups and nursery schools. The emphasis is on group work, creative activity and guided play
  • Compulsory education begins at five in England, Wales and Scotland and four in Northern Ireland
  • There is little or no specialist subject teaching and great emphasis on literacy and numeracy in early years
  • The usual age for transfer to secondary schools is eleven in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and twelve in Scotland.
a 2 schools today secondary phase
A 2 Schools Today – Secondary Phase
  • Compulsory education ends at age sixteen, though many pupils stay on beyond the minimum leaving age . The main exam pupils should take is GCSE.
  • About 90% of state secondary school pupils in England, Wales and Scotland go to comprehensive schools, which provide a wide range of secondary education for most children of all abilities from a district in the eleven to eighteen age range (twelve to eighteen in Scotland)
  • At age sixteen pupils in England and Wales may transfer to sixth form colleges or tertiary colleges ,leading to GCE A level
a 2 school today exams
A 2 School Today Exams
  • ExaminationsAt 16 students in England and Wales take GCSE examinations. These examinations are taken by students of all levels of ability in any of a range of subjects and may involve a final examination, an assessment of work done during the two year course, or both of these things. At 18 some students taken A-level examinations, usually in not more than 3 subjects. It is necessary to have A-levels in order to go to a university or other institutions of higher education
a 2 school today exams1
A 2 School Today Exams
  • Examinations
  • In Scotland students take the SCE examinations. A year later, they can take examinations called HIGHERS, after which they can either go straight to a university or spend a further year at school and take the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies. In Scotland the university system is different to that in England and Wales. Courses usually last four years rather than three and students study a larger number of subjects as part of their degree.
a 2 schools today achieve ment and social class
A 2 Schools Today – Achieve- ment and Social Class
  • Since 1980s reform a general improvement in qualifications by pupils at 16
  • Still a significant relationship between achievement of children and their parents’ social class
  • 80% of children from professional middle class attend university compared with 17% from the poorest homes
a 2 schools today independent schools
A 2 Schools Today Independent Schools
  • Fee-paying, known as public schools
  • 7% of schoolchildren attending
  • Good teaching staff
  • Eton – educated 19 Prime Ministers, 6 Chancellors of Exchequers, Shelley, Orwell, founded in 1440 by HENRY VI to educate sons of the poor for service of church & state. (see p69 for more)
a2 schools today public schools
A2 Schools Today Public Schools
  • Harrow School East Ham Grammar School for Boys
a 3 institutions of higher education universities
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Universities
  • 110 universities in UK. 93 in England, 13 in Scotland, 2 in Wales and 2 in N. Ireland
  • Over 42% of pupils become university students on leaving school at 18
  • Two other main universities. University of Buckingham (800 students) Open University (over 20,000 students). The latter non-residential university offering courses for adults of all ages. (more on p61 concerning important changes)
a 3 institutions of higher learning entrance procedures
A 3 Institutions of Higher Learning Entrance Procedures
  • In the third term of Year 12 students prepare their applications to university
  • Applications are then made in the first term of the Year 13 through one centralised organisation known as UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service )
  • Students can apply to a maximum of six universities/institutions.
  • Admission –selection on basis of A level results, schools &an interview
a 3 institution of higher learning entrance procedures
A 3 Institution of Higher learning Entrance Procedures
  • If a university or institution is impressed by the student’s UCAS form they will send an offer of a place conditional upon obtaining certain stated A Level grades
  • The final decision on which institution the student will actually attend will be taken when the A Level results are published in mid-August.
  • In the case of Cambridge applicants may be asked to obtain a good mark in an extra exam (called the STEP), which they can sit just after the A Level exams.
  • Applications through UCAS to Oxford and Cambridge also have to be sent by a special early deadline accompanied by a special extra form.
a 3 institutions of higher education cambridge
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Cambridge
  • Cambridge University was founded in 1209 by students fleeing from Oxford after one of the many episodes of violence between the university and the town of Oxford.
a 3 institutions of higher education former vice chancellor
His term of office has seen major innovation and expansion at Cambridge and a period where Cambridge has topped league tables and drawn investment from the international business community.

Sir Alec Broers

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Former Vice-Chancellor
a 3 institutions of higher education cambridge1
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Cambridge
  • Professor Sir Alec Broers said:
  • “I became Vice-Chancellor because I believed that I could help Cambridge build on its strengths by reaching out. Companies and individuals from all over the world have worked with us to move forward our research agenda, and we’ve worked hard to attract and support outstanding students from many countries and backgrounds.”
  • The Vice-Chancellor is the principal academic and administrative officer of the University.
a 3 institutions of higher education vice chancellor cambridge
It is a great honour that the University of Cambridge has chosen me to be its Vice-Chancellor and to follow in the footsteps of a heritage of eminent Vice-Chancellors, including Professor Sir Alec Broers, Dame Rosemary Murray and Sir David Williams.

Leading a University with nearly 800 years' history and a pre-eminent status on the world intellectual stage is a daunting prospect, but I am looking forward wholeheartedly to the challenges ahead.

Professor Alison Richard

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge
a 3 institution of higher education oxford
A 3 Institution of Higher Education Oxford
  • Oxford University. Legend has it that Oxford University was founded by King Alfred in 872. A more likely scenario is that it grew out of efforts begun by Alfred to encourage education and establish schools throughout his territory. There may have been a grammar school there in the 9th century. A grammar school was exactly what it sounds like; a place for teaching Latin grammar. The University as we know it actually began in the 12th century as gatherings of students around popular masters. The university consisted of people, not buildings. The buildings came later as a recognition of something that already existed. In a way, Oxford was never founded; it grew.
a 3 institutions of higher educations chancellor oxford
I am very pleased to have been elected Chancellor of Oxford University.

Oxford is one of the greatest universities in the world. It has played a distinguished part in the history of our country and our continent, and has much to contribute to our success and our well-being as a civilised community in the future.

Chris Patten

A 3 Institutions of Higher Educations Chancellor, Oxford
a 3 institutions of higher educations vice chancellor
Sir Colin Lucas has been Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford since 1997. He is the first Oxford Vice-Chancellor to serve for seven years, following the extension of his original four-year term of office, which has enabled him to see through a wide-ranging reform of the University's system of governance

Sir Colin Lucas

A 3 Institutions of Higher Educations Vice-Chancellor
a 3 institutions of higher education oxbridge
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Oxbridge
  • The Boat Race between Oxford & Cambridge started June 10, 1829
  • The event is now a British national institution, and is televised live each year. The race has been won by Cambridge 77 times and Oxford 71, with one dead heat in 1877. The most recent event was amongst the closest in history, with Oxford winning by less than a foot. One entertainment for spectators is the possibilty of a boat sinking. This has occurred on three occasions; to the Oxford crew in 1925 and to Cambridge in 1859 and in 1978.
  • The race is currently run over a four mile and 374 yard stretch of the River Thames between Putney and Mortlake in London.
a 3 institutions of higher education oxbridge1
The Dark Blue Crew

Oxford won the 2003 Boat Race, and with it the Aberdeen Asset Management Trophy, by the narrowest of margins after one of the most exciting finishes of all time.

A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Oxbridge
a 3 institutions of higher education universities1
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education Universities
  • Glasgow University Nottingham University
a3 institute of higher education buckingham uni
A3 Institute of Higher Education Buckingham Uni.
  • Verney Park Campus Chandos Road Campus
a 3 institution of higher education open university
A 3 Institution of Higher Education Open University
  • The Open University is ranked in the top five of UK universities for the quality of teaching, according to a newly-published national table.
  • The university, whose headquarters are at Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, has fifth spot – ahead of Oxford and University College London – in the Sunday Times University Guide 2003’s table of universities with the best marks for teaching
a 3 institution of higher education open university1
A 3 Institution of Higher Education Open University
  • The University Milton Keynes Pagoda
a3 institutions of higher learning crisis
A3 Institutions of Higher Learning Crisis
  • Universities in crisis
  • In most universities resources are spent on day-to-day teaching and research; non-essential work, such as building main­tenance, has been put on the back-burner. At the same time academic salaries have stalled: plumbers earn more than professors; research staff are paid less than school dinner ladies. So top academics are fleeing to the US and there are chronic shortages of teaching staff in areas such as law, computing, maths and computers
a3 institutions of higher education crisis
A3 Institutions of Higher Education Crisis
  • How has all this come about?
  • It boils down to a simple equation: government funding has remained static over the past few decades while the number of students has skyrocketed. As a result, Britain would now have to spend £3.5bn a year just to bring the amount it spends per student up to the EU average. And to return to student funding levels of a decade ago an extra £5.9bn in annual grants would be needed, roughly an extra 3p in the pound in income tax. The Week
a 3 institutions of higher education universities2
A 3 Institutions of Higher Education -- Universities
  • University graduates dominate British political leadership, especially those from Oxbridge – Thatcher, Blair, from Oxford; 2/3 of Blair’s cabinet members educated at Oxford or Cambridge
  • Individuals still feel positive about education
a3 institute of higher education teacher training
A3 Institute of Higher Education Teacher Training
  • To qualify as a teacher in Britain
  • One can take a 4-year Bachelor of Education (BEd) degree
  • Or follow any degree with a one- year PGCE.
  • In either case 2/3 of training will take place in school classrooms
a 4 further education training fecs
A 4 Further Education & Training FECs
  • Further education (FE) is distinct from higher education (HE)
  • FE comprises all provision outside school for people aged 16 and over, up to GCE A level or equivalent exams. There are 500/600 FECs.
  • Students study part-time or in the evening
  • FE Colleges have strong links with industry and commerce, employers often being involved in the design of the courses, e.g. secretarial studies & mechanical engineering.
  • FEC also offer foundation courses for older students returning to study after years of working to gain qualification for entry of higher education
a 4 further education training yts
A 4 Further Education & Training YTS
  • Objectives of Youth Training Scheme:
  • To give a training opportunity to school leavers who did not get a job or go on to university
  • To ensure that these young people learn how to transfer the skills they learn in one job to another
  • Education elements in the training are supplied by FECs
  • Critiques: 1. artificially reduce unemployment figures 2.reinforce young people’s status as determined by their class background 3. jobs are not guaranteed after training