Biological Anthropology. Biological evolution is the background for culture as a method of adaptation to physical environmental conditions. Human evolution is a story of co-evolution: cultural and biological change reinforcing one another. Basic Hominid Adaptations. Bipedalism
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2-1-2-3 dental formula.
Ramidus 1994 Ethiopia – slightly forward foramen magnum. Perhaps still partially arboreal
Anamensis 1965, not identified, 1994 Lake Turkana. Nearly full skeleton shows full bipedalism
Afarensis – Afar region of Ethiopia. Lucy at Hadar. Some 40 individuals. 3.7–2.9mya
The afarensis footprints – 75 feet, Laetoli, Tanzania.
Strong arch, well-defined ball, straight big toe.
Brain case of 415cc (compare to chimp and gorilla and modern human)
Canine diastema and protruding incisors. Dentition of Miocene apes, but orthograde