The exploration of librarian occupation s non professional tendency and its countermeasure
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关于图书馆员 去职业化倾向及对策的探讨 The Exploration of Librarian Occupation’s Non-professional Tendency and Its Countermeasure. 吴一舟 WU, YI ZHOU. Nov, 2012. 1 引言 Foreword. 如果以 1876 年美国图书馆协会( ALA )成立作为图书馆员专门职业诞生为标志,至今已有 130 多年了。在该协会的成立大会上,著名图书馆学家杜威宣布“图书馆工作成为专业化职业的时代到来了,今天的图书馆员可以实实在在地把自己的工作称作职业”。

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The exploration of librarian occupation s non professional tendency and its countermeasure
关于图书馆员去职业化倾向及对策的探讨The Exploration of Librarian Occupation’s Non-professional Tendency and Its Countermeasure

吴一舟 WU, YI ZHOU

Nov, 2012


Wu yi zhou

1 引言Foreword

如果以1876年美国图书馆协会(ALA)成立作为图书馆员专门职业诞生为标志,至今已有130多年了。在该协会的成立大会上,著名图书馆学家杜威宣布“图书馆工作成为专业化职业的时代到来了,今天的图书馆员可以实实在在地把自己的工作称作职业”。

It has been 130 years if we take the establishment of ALA as the emergence symbol of librarian professional career. On the first ALA conference, the famous library expert Dewey announced “The era has come that library work become a professional career, librarians can really see their jobs as careers today”.


Wu yi zhou

作为专业化的职业,长期以来,西方发达国家一直要求图书馆员必须经过图书馆学专业知识、专业技能和职业道德的培训才能上岗,并在后来发展为必须通过特定的资格认证才能成为图书馆员职业的一员。

As a professional career, the western developed countries have been demanding librarians must take a training course of professional knowledge, skills and professional ethics before they take the job, and a qualification authentication is developed to be a must for the ones who wanted to be a member of librarians for a long time.


Wu yi zhou

在我国,图书馆员作为一种社会岗位的存在虽也有100多年的历史,但作为一种被认可的职业身份至今仍有争论,或者说职业边界一直是不清晰的。尽管如此,直至上世纪末,图书馆员的专业性依然是在很大程度上得到社会承认的,并在图书馆学的专业教育中使这种专业性得以强化。

In our nation, it has been more than 100 years since librarian occupation seemed as a job in the society, but till now there is still a controversy whether librarian job can be treated as a professional career, or the career boundary has always been vague. However, till the end of the 20th century, profession of librarian occupation still got the social recognition in a large extent and enhanced by library science professional education.


Wu yi zhou

然而,随着近些年来信息技术的高速发展,图书馆的传统地位发生了根本动摇,图书馆本身在谋求生存和发展过程中所采取的一些措施不但没有强化图书馆员的职业性,反而大大弱化和模糊了其职业特征和职业价值。这一问题在图书馆员职业身份本来就不够明晰的我国显得更加突出。图书馆员面临着严重的去职业化倾向。

However, with the rapid development of information technology, the traditional position of libraries has been undermined. The measures libraries take to strive for their existence and development have not strengthened the profession of librarians but greatly weaken and fuzzed the profession characteristics and career value. The issue is more prominent in China, especially the librarian profession identity is vague itself. Librarians face the severe librarian occupation’s non-profession tendency.


Wu yi zhou

本文着重分析图书馆员去职业化倾向的表现,并就这一倾向提出对策见解。

This paper puts emphasis on analyzing the expressions of the librarian occupation’s non-profession tendency and put forward the opinion of the countermeasures to the phenomenon.


Wu yi zhou

2 本文着重分析图书馆员去职业化倾向的表现,并就这一倾向提出对策见解。去职业化的涵义

The implication of non-profession

职业化一词最初来源于拉丁文的“professio”,原意是对社会公开的承诺。所谓“职业化”,拉森(MAGALI LARSON)将其定义为“特殊服务的提供者,为他们所拥有的专门技术建立市场并加以控制的过程”。

The word “profession” is from Latin word “professio” initially, and its original meaning was the public commitment to the society. Magali Larson defined “profession” as “the providers of special service, who build and control the market through their professional skills”.


Wu yi zhou

职业人士正是通过他们对市场从能力到思想的垄断,以达到保护与提升经济利益与社会地位的效果。因此,职业化最本质的定义是在某个领域以特殊的技能服务于社会和公众利益的一个承诺。

The professionals will protect and promote economic benefits and social statues by the market monopoly from its ability to thoughts. Therefore, the most essential definition of professionalism is the commitment providing service to society and public interests in certain areas.


Wu yi zhou

“去职业化”,通俗地理解就是职业特征的消失和职业边界的模糊。它确切的涵义是指工作从职业导向转为过程导向,工作内容不再取决于职业,而取决于任务,从而打破了传统职业的界限划分,为完成任务可以跨越职业的门槛。其结果是固定专业员工比例减少,工作任务以外包性方式解决,专业生涯的吸引力下降,并出现工作职能被取代的现象。

Non-professionalism, usually means the disappearance of profession characteristics and the fuzz of profession boundary which exact meaning refers to the transition from profession guide to process guide, and job duties not depending on the profession but their mission, thus, breaking the boundary of traditional occupation and crossing professions to complete the mission.


Wu yi zhou

在当今的图书馆,非图书情报专业出身的人员不断占据或顶替大量原有的专业图书馆员岗位,采访编目等图书馆的核心业务外包等现象的出现大大弱化了图书馆工作的专业性和独特性。显然,图书馆员正越来越具备去职业化的特征。

Nowadays, laypeople have continuously occupying or replacing a large amount of professionals’ positions and the appearance of core work outsourcing, like book acquisition and cataloguing, is weakening the professionalism and characteristic of library work. Apperantly, librarian occupation is characterized with non-professional tendency.


Wu yi zhou

3 在当今的图书馆,非图书情报专业出身的人员不断占据或顶替大量原有的专业图书馆员岗位,采访编目等图书馆的核心业务外包等现象的出现大大弱化了图书馆工作的专业性和独特性。显然,图书馆员正越来越具备去职业化的特征。.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3 图书馆员去职业化倾向的表现

The expression of librarian occupation’s non-professional tendency

3.1 非图书馆学专业人员比例的上升

The number of non-professional employees rises

3.2 核心业务的外包

The outsourcing of library core function


Wu yi zhou

3 在当今的图书馆,非图书情报专业出身的人员不断占据或顶替大量原有的专业图书馆员岗位,采访编目等图书馆的核心业务外包等现象的出现大大弱化了图书馆工作的专业性和独特性。显然,图书馆员正越来越具备去职业化的特征。.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3.4自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

3 图书馆员去职业化倾向的表现

The expression of librarian occupation’s non-professional tendency

3.3 公共信息中心和信息中介地位的丧失

The loss of the position as public information centre and information intermediary

3.4 自动化设备和用户自助服务的普及

The spreading of automatic equipment and user self-service


Wu yi zhou

4 在当今的图书馆,非图书情报专业出身的人员不断占据或顶替大量原有的专业图书馆员岗位,采访编目等图书馆的核心业务外包等现象的出现大大弱化了图书馆工作的专业性和独特性。显然,图书馆员正越来越具备去职业化的特征。扭转去职业化倾向的对策见解

The opinion of reversing the non-profession tendency strategy

4.1 强化图书馆员的角色拓展和能力建设

Enhancing the librarian’s character expanding and ability training

4.2 制度化规范图书馆员的职业边界

Regulate the profession boundary by rules and regulations


Wu yi zhou

4 在当今的图书馆,非图书情报专业出身的人员不断占据或顶替大量原有的专业图书馆员岗位,采访编目等图书馆的核心业务外包等现象的出现大大弱化了图书馆工作的专业性和独特性。显然,图书馆员正越来越具备去职业化的特征。扭转去职业化倾向的对策见解

The opinion of reversing the non-profession tendency strategy

4.3 合理运用业务外包机制

Properly use the outsourcing mechanism

4.4 完善图书馆员继续教育制度

Perfect the librarian continuing education regulation

4.5 变革图书馆学专业教育

Reform the professional education of Library Science


Wu yi zhou

5 在当今的图书馆,非图书情报专业出身的人员不断占据或顶替大量原有的专业图书馆员岗位,采访编目等图书馆的核心业务外包等现象的出现大大弱化了图书馆工作的专业性和独特性。显然,图书馆员正越来越具备去职业化的特征。结语 Conclusion

综上所述,图书馆员去职业化倾向已成为不争的事实,形成这一倾向的原因,有些是信息化时代大背景下的必然结果,有些是社会变革中图书馆未能及时跟上时代步伐的结果,有些是图书馆求变过程中产生的偏差。不管什么原因,重要的是分析这些原因背后的偶然与必然,找到切实可行的应对之策并努力实践之。

In conclusion, it is an indisputable fact that librarian occupation tend to be non-professional. The reason for this tendency, some part of which lies to the inevitable result of the informationization-age background, some of which lies to the failure libraries can’t keep up with the social transformation, some of which lies to the deviation in the process of library development. Whatever the reason is, the emphasis should be laid on analyzing the chances and necessities behind these reasons and find responsive measures and put them into practice.


Wu yi zhou

本文所提出的对策见解中,有些需要国家相关管理部门从宏观的角度加以解决,有些需要图书馆员从个体微观的角度来解决,更多的则需要作为机构整体的各个图书馆结合自身实际和社会大环境,从多方面来提升图书馆员的职业素养和能力,为社会提供满意的服务。

As for the opinions on the countermeasures mentioned in the paper, some need the support from the relevant national administrative institution from macroscopic view, some need the efforts from the librarian staff from microscopic view, more require each library from its own reality and social environment working as a institutional mechanism, promoting the librarians’ professional skills from various kinds to better service to our society.


Wu yi zhou

从本质上说,只要图书馆的服务得到了社会的一致认可和赞许,也就意味着图书馆员的工作得到了社会的认同,再辅之以相关制度的完善,图书馆员去职业化的倾向必然会得到扭转,并实现真正意义上的职业化。

Essentially, as long as the library services have receive the social recognition and praise, it means the library work gets the social approval and with the perfection of library system, the tendency of non-profession will be reversed and library will realize its professionalism in its true sense.


Thanks
谢 谢 ! 从本质上说,只要图书馆的服务得到了社会的一致认可和赞许,也就意味着图书馆员的工作得到了社会的认同,再辅之以相关制度的完善,图书馆员去职业化的倾向必然会得到扭转,并实现真正意义上的职业化。Thanks!