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Build your new world with Emaco Group. SOLAR POWER. The energy demand will be doubled in the next 30 years Insecurity in energy supplies International tensions A major threat is more urgent to be encountered Climate Change

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Solar power

Build your new world with Emaco Group

SOLAR POWER

  • The energy demand will be doubled in the next 30 years

  • Insecurity in energy supplies

  • International tensions

  • A major threat is more urgent to be encountered Climate Change

  • The sun has enormous potential to become the most dominant direct source of all renewable energies. It provides, within three days, as much energy as that contained by all of the known fossil fuel reserves underground.


The climate change and global warming due to co2 emissions ipcc scenarios
The climate change and global warming due to CO2 emissions (IPCC* scenarios)

  • Without the proper measures for CO2 emissions elimination, the climate change will become a real threat

  • The China’s and India’s energy demand make the situation much worst.

  • The best scenario has a high cost, however the cost of the inaction is much higher

related to energy and industry

*Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

SRES - Special Report on Emissions Scenarios


Precipitation change extreme events
Precipitation change & extreme events

  • Due to precipitation changes fertile land desertificationit is possible in many areas.

  • The existing atmospheric models can not exclude the appearance of the most catastrophic extreme events (very strong typhoons, tornados, snow or hail storms etc.).

  • Thus such extremely catastrophic events it is possible to appear sooner or later



The missing ideal technology generating electricity to cover 50 of demand
The missing ideal electricity technologiestechnology generating electricity to cover 50% of demand

  • Continuous high quality electricity generation

  • Simple technology that can be applied in all continents

  • Low construction cost of Power Plants and low direct cost of the produced KWh

  • Easy and fast deployed technology, based on existing material and using local personnel for construction, operation and maintenance of Power Plants

  • Zero CO2 emissions and of any other forms of pollution

  • Zero water demand

  • Zero thermal energy generation to the biosphere

  • Originated from renewable source (better solar)


Solar power

CSP =Concentrated Solar Power electricity technologies

PV = PhotoVoltaic

SWH= Solar Water Heating


Solar power

Concentrated Solar Power electricity technologies

Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is directed onto photovoltaic surfaces or used to heat a transfer fluid for a conventional power plant.

Concentrated solar power systems are divided into:

concentrated solar thermal (CST)

concentrated photovoltaics (CPV)

concentrating photovoltaics and thermal (CPT)


Solar power

Concentrated Solar Power electricity technologies

Concentrated solar thermal (CST)

  • Concentrated solar thermal is used to produce renewable heat or electricity (generally, in the latter case, through steam). CST systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area The concentrated light is then used as heat or as a heat source for a conventional power plant (solar thermoelectricity).

  • A wide range of concentrating technologies exist, including the parabolic trough, Dish Stirling, Concentrating Linear Fresnel Reflector, Solar chimney and solar power tower. Each concentration method is capable of producing high temperatures and correspondingly high thermodynamic efficiencies, but they vary in the way that they track the Sun and focus light.


Solar power

Concentrated Solar Power electricity technologies

Concentrated photovoltaics(CPV)

  • Concentrated photovoltaics systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of electrical power production.

  • Solar concentrators of all varieties may be used, and these are often mounted on a solar tracker in order to keep the focal point upon the cell as the Sun moves across the sky.


Solar power

Concentrated Solar Power electricity technologies

Concentrated Photovoltaics and Thermal (CPT)

  • Concentrating Photovoltaics and Thermal technology produces both electricity and thermal heat in the same module. Thermal heat can be employed for hot tap water, heating and heat-powered air conditioning (solar cooling), desalination or solar process heat.

  • CPVT systems can be used in private homes and increase total energy output to 40-50%, as compared with normal PV panels with 10-20% efficiency, and they produce more thermal heat in wintertime compared with normal thermal collectors. Also, thermal systems do not overheat..


Solar power

SOLAR WATER HEATING electricity technologies

The diagram illustrates a simple water heating circuit.

The solar collector contains two independent circuits. An oil circuit in a closed system comprises a solar collector, the tubes and a small pump (needed  to move hot oil through the circuit) and a U-tube heat exchanger in the water tank.

The cold oil is moved by the pump, collects heat energy in the solar collector, goes to the u-tube heat exchanger and transfers some of its heat to the water in the tank.

The second circuit, starts in a cold water feed which fills up the thank and pick up energy from the U-tube heat exchanger. Once the water is warm it can be used in a tap water circuit.

If we want to produce electricity from the sun, the best way is by a thermal solar plant .


Solar power

SOLAR WATER HEATING electricity technologies

In an industrial Solar plant, an array of mirrors acts as a parabolic reflector, concentrating solar energy onto a focal point (where the tube with a thermal liquid is installed).

The temperature of the heat transfer fluid, at the focal point, may reach 3,000 ºC. This heat is used to give energy to the water circuit inside a Heat exchanger.

Water changes into stream and moves a turbine whose axle moves the generator, producing electricity.

Steam water is changed into liquid and pushed again to the heat exchanger.


Solar power

PhotoVoltaic electricity technologies

Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the main source for capturing the sun’s energy and as such, with their carbon dioxide-free, limitless, safe and quiet power, are experiencing the highest growth rate of any energy producing technology.

With today’s advanced technologies, the actual environmental impact of a Photovoltaic power systems is restored after only a few years of operation.

Finally, Photovoltaic power systems improve the security of the transmission network supply though a modular and decentralized power generation concept.

Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into electricity. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light knocking electrons into a higher state of energy to create electricity. The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode.

Solar cells produce direct current electricity from light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery.

Today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC. There is also a market for off-grid power for remote light, dwellings, boats, recreational vehicles, electric cars, roadside signals and emergency telephones, remote sensing, and cathodic protection of pipelines.


Solar power

Actually available solution electricity technologies

Based on solar energy

Photovoltaic applications


A wireless street light
a) WIRELESS STREET LIGHT electricity technologies

  • See our catalog


Solar power

  • a) electricity technologiesWIRELESS STREET LIGHT

  • See our catalog


A wireless street light1
a) WIRELESS STREET LIGHT electricity technologies

  • See our catalog


B wireless traffic light
b. WIRELESS TRAFFIC LIGHT electricity technologies

  • See our catalog


Wireless traffic light
WIRELESS TRAFFIC LIGHT electricity technologies

  • See our catalog


C wireless water pump
c. WIRELESS WATER PUMP electricity technologies

  • See our catalog


C wireless water pump1
C WIRELESS WATER PUMP electricity technologies

  • See our catalog


Underground battery vaults ubv
Underground Battery Vaults (UBV ) electricity technologies

  • Underground Battery Vaults are manufactured from high density polyethylene (HDPE) and can house up to eight batteries.


Solar power

Comparison Cost Study electricity technologiesbetweenTraditional Lighting Systems

and

Solar Street Lighting Systems


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

by Dr. HamidSherwali

Introduction

As the cost of any dream plays the important part when deciding to make it real, it’s decided to investigate what is the cost of making LIBYA streets take the advantage of the sun shining 365 days per year, and to keep LIBYA, as always, leads in all life aspects.

The investigation summaries a comparison study in which the cost of solar powered street lighting is compared with the cost of street lighting powered by traditional source of power.


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems1
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Solar Street Lighting

Solar lights consist of three major components: a solar panel, the light itself (which is a LED light), and a battery. Solar panels are made of a semi-conducting material, often times silicon. When sunlight strikes the panel the light waves get converted into electric current through a process known as the photoelectric effect. The generated electricity is stored in the battery throughout the day, and is then used to power the LED light at night. Solar street lights can be easily installed and moved and delivers free, renewable energy which is stored in a battery ready to be used when darkness falls.

Traditional Street Lighting

Traditional street lighting system comprises, poles complete with brackets, luminaries, lamps, jointing box, internal pole wiring, 4*16 (or 25) mm2 power cable, 1*16 (or 25) mm2earthing wire, earthing points, 4*50 mm2 (or above) power cable and lighting distribution box.


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems2
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Comparison

Based on GECOL specification, High pressure sodium lamps have the following characteristics:

112 lumen/watt -- Average lifetime hours max 18000 Hour

Comparison is based on one Km of single sided pole arrangement with:

H(Pole height) ≥ 0.8 W(Road width) and S(Spacing between poles) ≤ 3.5 H

Considering average working hours in Libya is 12 hours / day

(Summer time 10 hours dark time, winter time 14 hours dark time and 12 hours in spring and autumn)

For a 10-12 meter width road with single sided pole arrangement lighted with high pressure sodium lamps of 250 watt (0.274 Kw with ballast) each, along unit distance of 1 Km we will need the following:


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems3
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

33 Lighting pole complete with brackets, luminaries, lamps, jointing box and internal pole wiring.

1066 meter of 4*16 (or 25) mm2 power cable

1066 meter of 1*16 (or 25) mm2earthing wire

At least two earthing point

Approximately 40 of 3.5*50 mm2 power cable

Approximately 25% of lighting distribution box

From above data and for entire life time of a lighting system (25 years), one can calculate the following:-


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems4
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Capital Cost

1. Traditional Street Lighting

* Estimated figure (average)

** Lighting box with six branches may cover 3 Km of street lighting

***Each 4 Km of street lighting may need one road crossing


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems5
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

  • Traditional Street Lighting

  • Total 1 Km of single sided street lighting using poles of 8m length and 250 w lamps is approximately 107514 LD (One hundred and seven thousand and five hundred and fourteen LD).

  • Solar Street Lighting

  • For solar system one can notice that most of the items existed in traditional lighting system do not exist in solar system. This, in addition to money saving, saves time and causes comfort during execution.


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems6
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Capital Cost

2. Solar Street Lighting


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems7
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

It is understood that the poles may have special design to adopt solar units, thus pole prices may differ than that provided by HIB. If an additional 300 LD assumed for each pole, gives a total of 10000 LD, the total price becomes 124246 LD (One hundred and twenty four thousand and two hundred and forty six LD).

Running cost

Total energy consumed / day = 33 * 0.274 * 12 = 108.504 Kwh/day

Total energy consumed / year =108.504 * 365 = 39603.96 Kwh/year

Energy consumed cost /year = 39603.96*cost of 1 Kwh (say0.05 LD)= 1980.198 LD/ year

Energy consumed cost/ life time =1980.198 * 25 =49.505 LD

(Forty Nine Thousand LD) Lamp average working hours are 18000 Hour, i.e. 49 months

It must get replace before that time, thus for entire life time of lamps they must be changed at least six times;

Lamp replacement cost =

(average lamp price over life time i.e. 100) * (6)* 33 =19800 LD


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems8
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Fixing all other running costs such as cost of maintenance, cleaning, replacement, etc…

Total running cost is 49.505+19800 = 69,300 LD

(Sixty nine Thousand and 300 LD).

Solar Street Lighting

For a 10-12 meter width road with single sided pole arrangement lighted with LED solar street lighting system, along unit distance of 1 Km we will need the following:- Lighting pole complete with arms, luminaries, lamps (which is LED light), jointing box, internal pole wiring, solar panel and Batteries.

No need for cabling, central lighting distribution box and earthing wire.

Running cost

Energy consumed cost /year = Zero

Energy consumed cost/ life time =Zero

Lamp average working hours are 60000 Hour, i.e. 164 months =14 years Thus for entire life time of lamps they may get changed once, i.e. one shall never have to worry about the LED light burning out.

Lamp replacement cost = 33 * 100 = 3300 LD

Battery replacement each five years


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems9
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Battery replacement cost = 4 * (cost of one box of batteries app 200 LD) * 33 =26400 LD

Fixing all other running costs such as cost of maintenance, cleaning, replacement, etc…

Total running cost for Solar Street lighting is 29700 LD,

{Solar lights have approximately 50% running cost of its counterpart over its entire life time.}

Summary of the Comparison

Based on HIB price list, the capital cost of one Km of single sided street lighting is approximately 107514 LD, and has a running cost of 69300 LD. However, the capital cost of solar lighting street lighting is 124906 LD, and has a running cost of 29700 LD.

Difference in capital Cost is S 17392 LD

Difference in running cost is T39600 LD

Difference in total cost is T 22208 LD

S: Solar higher, T: Traditional higher


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems10
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

Over the entire life time of the street lighting system, lighting system powered by solar costs less than traditional lighting system by 18908 LD


Traditional street lighting systems and solar street lighting systems11
Traditional Street Lighting Systems electricity technologiesand Solar Street Lighting Systems

  • Few more remarks

  • Solar system prices may be different than the above mentioned prices depending on pole height and shape, battery position (top, bottom), panel type and the output power required.  

  • The difference in capital investment between solar and traditional street lighting systems may become much narrower, or it may even vanish, because the calculation is based on nowadays prices, future is working in favor of this technology; the prices of solar technology are expected to become less expensive and the price of works associated to the traditional system is expected to increase as advancing in time.  

  • The Kwh price used for this analysis is 0.05LD which is likely increasing to become more than doubled during the entire life time of lighting system. As a conclusion the capital cost of solar system is going down while the running cost of the ordinary system is going up, i.e. solar lighting will pay its capital cost back within its first six years of its entire life time by the amount of money saved on energy costs.

  • Other Hidden Benefits

  • Solar lights are the safest and the easiest kind of outdoor lights to install.

  • They are the most environmentally friendly form of lighting that you can find.

  • You will never have to worry about the LED light burning out.


Solar energy
SOLAR ENERGY electricity technologies

  • Thank you!

  • Emaco group