Drying • Wood drying should be used seasoning for decreasing moisture content in wood lesser than 30 % for 1 month, then drying with kiln drying for 1 month. • Lumber should be control drying at surface, not rapidity dried. • If moisture content in wood and surface of wood are difference more than 5 %, wood stress due to wood failure, e.g. bow, case hardening, and honeycombing.
Drying • But some wood failure occurred from natural property of wood, e.g. grain and age, • that fast growing species such as Eucalyptus and SaDuaTium, due to stress in wood, emphasize high growth stress of young tree. • That is easily the end split. • Therefore, the end of lumber should be printcoat for decreased evaporate moisture from wood. • In addition to, piling should be used stick at the end of lumber and pressed on the top by weight.
III. Processing and Utilization • 1. Primary processing • 1.1 Sawing • 1.2 Wood preservation • 2. Secondary processing • 2.1 Furniture manufacturing • 2.2 Wood-based panels manufacturing • 2.3 Pulp and paper manufacturing • 2.4 Charcoal production
Furniture • 1) Stable furniture or Furnished furniture • 2) Knock down furniture • 1) Usage skilled labor more than unskilled labor • 2) Manufacturing by machine • 3) Manufacturing by machine more than skilled labor
Wood-based panels • - Veneer and plywood • - Composite board • - Fiberboard • - Particleboard • - Wood cement board
Veneer and plywood • The shortage of large log, due to some factory changed peeling machine from 8 ft. to 4 ft. length and slicing machine for the thinnest veneer, 0.1 mm. thickness. • Some factory imported log for veneer production and re-export or overlay on wood products of factory.
Composite board • Flooring (parquet and mosaic parquet) and block board are common technology. • by finger joint technique. • Raw materials are Teak and Eucalyptus from plantation, rejected wood in flooring production 20-25 % and 50-60 %, respectively. • Colour coating need to production because of still sapwood (cream colour), that difference from heartwood (dark colour).
Fiberboard • Hardboard and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF). • All of Hardboard in Thailand produce with wet process. • Raw materials of Hardboard are Eucalyptus and wood from plantation e.g. KraTinTaPa (Acacia sp.) and also Bagasse. • Raw materials of MDF are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus, KraTinTaPa, and Bagasse (MDF, which Bagasse used the first factory of the world).
Particleboard • *Particleboard used as raw material for construction and furniture production because of decreasing of solid wood and logging ban in 1989. Due to particleboard used increasing in wood working. • Extruded pressed processing used only one factory. Another factory used platen pressed processing. • Raw materials are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus and Bagasse. 3 layers sheet, 12 and 16 mm. thickness, is characteristically of particleboard in Thailand.
Wood cement board • Raw material of Wood Wool Cement Board is SomPhong (Tetrameles nudiflora R.Br.), import from Myanmar, today. Wood Cement Particleboard produced from Eucalyptus. Wood Cement Fiberboard, plank for wall house, produced from cement approximately 90 % and recovered paper approximately 10 % with mixed a little asbestos.
Pulp and paper • Raw materials ; non-wood (e.g. Straw, Bamboo, Kenaf and Bagasse) and wood (Eucalyptus). • That is short fiber, so Thailand must imported long fiber and also recovered paper.
All pulp factories produce with chemical process except one factory produced pulp with semichemical process yield approximately 45 %. • The products are kraft paper 50 % and other papers : printing-writing paper, paperboard, newsprint paper, household and sanitary paper etc.
Charcoal Now, lapwood of Eucalyptus from plantation widespread produced charcoal and briquett for export. In addition to, activated carbon produced from charcoal for industry. • It’s produced with soil or rice husk mound and mud beehive. • Commercial charcoal produced usually with brick beehive.
Recovery rate of charcoal production is 30-35 % of wood at oven dry weight. • Pile of Eucalyptus 1 cu.m. can be produced charcoal 120 kg. Heat value of Eucalyptus charcoal is 7.35 kg.cal/g. • The highest heat value is charcoal from KongKang (Rhizophora sp.), 7.50 kg.cal./g. • Each year, Thailand has consumption charcoal 3 million kg. Demand of charcoal for export is large scale.
$ million. IV. Markets and Socio-Economics • Wood consumption in Thailand is about 3-4 million cu.m./year. • Imported wood and wood products : (1999) • 1. Log 0.47 million cu.m. cost $ 80.8 million and sawntimber 1.25 million cu.m. cost $ 169.9 million. • 2. Wood productions : plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, parquet, fuelwood, charcoal, furniture, door, window, etc total cost $ 28.9 million. • 3. Pulp 438,525 tons of total cost $ 177.5 million. • 4. Paper 365,208 tons of total cost $ 362.8 million.
IV. Markets and Socio-Economics • The averaged increasing of Thailand’s population is 1.2 % per year. In 1985, Thailand has 53 million populations and increased to 61 million in 1999, • therefore, the demand in wood and wood products consumption increased every year. • The country’s capacity to produce and reforest cannot meet the demand so the price of wood and wood products still high.
Sawmills and Wood working factories LOCATION Northeastern region 10 % Bangkok 38 % Southern region 10 % Total 6,911 factories, 6,342 of furniture factories Northern region 8 % Central region 33 % SIZE OF FACTORY 89 % of these factories are the small factory, 10 % of medium factories and only 1 % of the large factories.
Investment and Labors • The capital investment cost $ 1,085 million, which 176,000 labors were employed. • 262 of 2,692 furniture factories are the factories which used Rubberwood for furniture production and employ 68,992 labors.
Eucalyptus wood marketing • Eucalyptus aged 5 years gave wood 16.65 tons/rai. • The total capital were 8,140 baht/rai. • The selling price of log was 850 baht/ton, thus, the income was 14,152 baht and the net profit was 6,012 baht, • that the averaged income per year total 1,200 baht/rai.
The price of the thinning teak wood • from the FIO (Forest Industry Organizaion) • at girth 30-140 cm. and 2-6 m. length will cost 2,100-18,400 baht/cu.m.
Import and export Thailand’s wood products for the wood industry • 1. Lumber Industry • 2. Furniture Industry • 3. Wood products industry for household • 4. Pulp and paper industry
% 80 60 40 20 0 Lumber Industry In 1999, the imported value cost $ 51.11 million. The important to import lumber are ASEAN (80 %), U.S.A. (12 %), European Union (2 %), and other countries (6 %). OTHERS (6 %) E.U. (2 %) U.S.A. (12 %) ASEAN (80 %)
% 80 60 40 20 0 Lumber Industry The exported value was $ 103.23 million, the important country to export were Japan (22 %), ASEAN (15 %), European Union (11 %) and U.S.A. (4 %). Japan (22 %) E.U. (11 %) U.S.A. (4 %) ASEAN (15 %)
% 80 60 40 20 0 Furniture Industry In 1998, the total exported furniture value was $ 434.92 million, 60 % of Rubberwood furniture, 30 % of particleboard and MDF furniture and 10 % of hardwood furniture. JAPAN (43 %) OTHERS (8 %) E.U. (11 %) U.S.A. (36 %) ASEAN (2 %)
% 80 60 40 20 0 Wood products industry for household The import value in 1989 were $ 34.88 million by import plywood, veneer and other products JAPAN (2 %) OTHERS (23 %) E.U. (16 %) U.S.A. (6 %) ASEAN (52 %)
% 80 60 40 20 0 Wood products industry for household The export, in 1989, were $ 293.21 million ; JAPAN (14 %) OTHERS (11 %) E.U. (30 %) U.S.A. (44 %) ASEAN (1 %) The handicraft such as the plates produced from Rubberwood, the decoration : frame, carved wood, which always produced from Mango wood and Teak. The exported were 80 % and used in domestic only 20 %.
% 80 60 40 20 0 Pulp and paper industry JAPAN (1 %) E.U. (18 %) U.S.A. (3 %) ASEAN (27 %) The value of thailand’s export pulp, paper, and paper products such as household and sanitary paper were $ 463.58 million,
Pulp and paper industry • Thailand have of import pulp especially long fiber from U.S.A., Canada, and Africa total value cost $ 168.95 million • and also import paperboard, box, kraft paper, printing-writing paper, newsprint paper, and sanitary paper etc. • In 1988, the total value were $ 35.92 million.
V. Policy and Legislation • 1. Forestry Act • 2. National Forest Policy • 3. Thai Forestry Sector Master Plan • 4. Funding support • 5. The composed cooperatives • 6. Reformation in the Industrial Structure • 7. Tariff measurement
1. Forestry Act • The Forestry Act 1941 for protect the selection cutting and illegal logging. The mentioned law did not support to the present wood industry development. • The act improvement is quite difficult and more complex, thus the promulgated the new act is the success way, for example The Forest Plantation Act 1992
2. National Forest Policy • Created in 1983 for the long term in forest resources management and development were concerned about this issue : • - government organization, private and community sector • - wood industry • - reforestation, plantation • - etc
3. Thai Forestry Sector Master Plan • formulated during 1990-1993 by the technical assistant of the Finland government. • for solving the problem of the short of wood and strengthen the confidence on the raw materials by the management of forest plantation, community forest and private forest. (within 2010)
4. Funding support • from the Agriculture and Cooperatives Bank and the Japan Oversea Economic Cooperative Funding (OECF) • but the rules and conditions is complex • In conclusion, the funding which the farmer received was only 3,000 baht/rai from the Farmer Extension for Forest Plantation Project.
5. The composed cooperatives • For the forest plantation farmer to compose and set the cooperatives in each province. • The targets of the cooperatives are for log selling and wood industries for producing to support domestic demand and export. • There are 30 cooperatives, at present (Thailand has 76 provinces).
6. Reformation in the Industrial Structure • The Ministry of Industry hold a meeting to discuss for the new structure of Thailand industry : • For the problems and create the strategies on Thailand’s wood products and furniture industry
7. Tariff measurement • The tariff measurement appointed the tax of exported log and lumber 40 %, and 10 % for the unsuitable wood for wood production. • The imported wood products can be locally produced is 20 % and 10 % of them which cannot locally produced.
VI. Institutional Capacity • 1. Planning sector • 1.1 The National Research Council of Thailand • 1.2 The Forestry Research Office • 2. Operating sector • 2.1 Forest Products R&D Division (FPRD) • 2.2 Kasetsart University (KU) • 2.2.1 Forest Products Division, Faculty of Forestry • 2.2.2 Pulp/paper and Wood Composites Research Unit
National Research Council of Thailand • For the National Research in 4 directions : • 1) self dependence country • 2) improvement in productivity and value added • 3) improvement in quality of life, social, and environment • 4) information reception in country ability
Forestry Research Office • 3 policy of planning in R&D as follows : • 1) forest conservation and protection plan • 2) forest resource processing and utilization plan • 3) sustainable forestry management plan • Wood utilization program is appointed for the purpose of developing new efficient technology for local wood sp. instead of imported wood.
Forest Products R&D Division (FPRD) • FPRD is directly responsible to study to products: • - properties of wood, • - wood products, • - wood and non-wood industry, • - non-wood utilization, • - other materials instead of wood, • - energy from wood or residual agriculture.
Kasetsart University (KU) • 2.2.1 Forest Products Division, Faculty of Forestry • the majority to produce graduate in wood industry for government office and emphasize wood industrial company. • graduated of wood science and technology. And start up in this year for graduated of pulp and paper technology
Pulp/paper and Wood Composites Research Unit • supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). • Study to wood and residual agriculture, developing new technology for pulp and paper, and wood composite board.
Company of wood industry • has R&D unit, only large factory. • The main target of study for received product standard and decrease production cost. • Some issue they study with FPRD and KU.
THAILAND area 51,311,502 hectares population 61.7 million. Forest area 12,972,200 hectares (25.28 %) to increase forest lands to 40 % wood consumption is 0.2 cu.m./year/person or 12.34 million cu.m./year. logging ban in 1989, imported wood and wood products over than $ 800 million. VII. Overview and Conclusion
VII. Overview and Conclusion • Wood shortage is still a major problem for related industries. • At present, there is an attempt to develop • Rubberwood species for timber, • high yield of fiber from Eucalyptus, including to add more value for wood from plantation to furniture and flooring industries. • Teak from thinning period is found to be too small and low recovery rate
VII. Overview and Conclusion • Thailand has a privilege for plantation due to its location. • Only 4-6 years for fast growing species and 30-40 years for normal trees, harvesting can be done
Model of Wood Utilization • The best way to use a tree is to consider how to efficiently use every part of the tree such as root, stump, log and branches, which manufacturing process has to be employed. Wood may be dried and preserved to make it strong and last longer time. • Lapwood can be used for tools, wood products, parquet, woodfuel, charcoal and chipwood. Stumps and branches can be used as woodfuel and chipwood, as well, for large scale of industries of wood chemical products, pulp and paper, fiberboard, which made from chipwood through defibration process. Chipwood, also can be dissolved into particle, without defibrator, mixed with resin and cement for particleboard and wood cement board, respectively. • Timber can be added for highest value by using as veneer or plywood. Core and lapwood from the veneer process can be used as chipwood. Moreover some parts of wood from the process can be raw material for carving as well. Small log can be used as poles for construction. • As mentioned above, the uses of wood will be efficient and intelligent if there are industries to support or so called “Integrated Wood Industries”.
Preservation Drying Constructed lumber Branches Lumber Furniture Household utensils Sawmill Lapwood Flooring/Parquet Wood Chemical Log Defibrator Pulp & Paper Fuelwood Chipper Fiberboard Chipwood Particleboard Stump/Root Cement-bonded Particleboard Carved wood Wood-wool Cementboard Pole/Post Veneer Peeling/Slicing Plywood Core/Veneer residue Model of Wood Utilization
VII. Overview and Conclusion • Due to economic crisis in Thailand, last 5 years there was decreasing of wood and wood products. • On the other hand export of such was increasing. • This may be results from industrial and economic reform.
VII. Overview and Conclusion • At present, • there is a concept to encourage local people to live on their feet. • The attitudes of using local products or their household products are arising. • The government has also launched a campaign namely “One village, one product” to promote indigenous knowledge to create their own specific product.