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slide1

If one person defined America politically in the 1980s, it was Ronald Reagan. A former Cubs radio announcer and grade B movie star, his Hollywood image, eternal optimism, and simplistic view of the world in black and white terms resonated with the public in its desire to regain a sense of America’s greatness.

slide2

In a sense, Reagan was the last great Cold Warrior. His strong rhetoric about Russia being an “Evil Empire” combined with fears over rising Soviet military strength swept him to a strong victory in 1980 over Jimmy Carter who was still floundering in the Iranian hostage crisis. In fact, after 444 days of being held in Iran, the hostages were released the same day Reagan was sworn in as president.

slide3

Reagan wasn’t the smartest president the U.S. ever had, having his typed briefings limited to a page and a half (double spaced) in length. Instead, he relied on his gut instincts, which in the end served both sides in the Cold War well as he realized the Russian leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, was as sincere about achieving peace as he was.

Although his successor, President George H.W. Bush, would preside over the final demise of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, it was Reagan’s presidency that set the stage. Similarly, it would be the Clinton administration in the 1990s that would reap the economic benefits of the end of the Cold War.

This cartoon captures the ambivalent feelings many Americans had concerning the Reagan administration.

slide5

a

“Arrrrrrr…”

slide7

Terrorist bombings in the 1980s were largely associated with the clash between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Below, British soldiers react to a disturbance in Belfast.

slide9

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Steady erosion of public support & ability to control E. Eur Sudden collapse of Communism

USSR breaks into Russia & other ind. states (1991)

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Warsaw Pact dissolves (1989) & Germany reunifies

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

Newly indep. states & Russia struggle to adapt to high tech Capitalist world of 1990s (FC.150)

slide11

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

slide12

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

slide13

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

slide14

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

slide15

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

slide16

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

slide17

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

slide18

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

slide19

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

slide20

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

slide21

Oil and Missiles

Since Russia was an oil exporter, higher oil prices in the 1970s made a Soviet arms buildup possible. Conversely, higher oil prices and the anti-military feeling in the US after the Vietnam War allowed the American military to stagnate.

Ironically, détente had also added to the problem, because better relations with the Russians gave them access to our high tech targeting technologies.

These factors allowed the Soviet Union’s nuclear arsenal, in some people’s opinions, to catch up, or maybe even surpass, that of the US. Added to this, the accelerating pace of technological advancement was producing a whole new generation of expensive weapons that neither side felt it could ignore. The result: a renewed arms race that drained both sides’ economies and terrified virtually everyone.

slide22

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide23

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide24

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide25

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide26

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide27

Star Wars

The arms race in the Reagan era

slide28

On this and the following slides are artists’ sketches of what some of the new soviet weapons supposedly could do. The silo-launched SS-18 Mod 5 Intercontinental Ballistic Missile was the core of the Soviet Union's modernized ICBM arsenal in the 1980's. The SS-18 featured hard-target-kill capability and ten nuclear warheads on each missile, thus presenting 10 times the threat per missile. Of course, the US had been deploying MIRVs such as this since the late 1960s.

www.fas.org/

slide29

One weapon that scared us in the 1970s was the SS-24 Mod 1 ICBM, which could be launched from mobile railroad cars anywhere in the USSR, thus making it harder to target. The accuracy and survivability of these missiles deployed in the 1980's significantly increased the lethality of the USSR's intercontinental ballistic missile force.

Our answer was the MX missile, which could also be launched from mobile railroad cars. What made such weapons feasible was much improved computer programming and GPS satellites.

Ironically, better targeting technology made nuclear war seem more winnable, since one could now just target enemy missiles away from cities. Of course, this raised the question of whether such a nuclear exchange could be limited to non-civilian targets.

www.fas.org/

slide30

SOVIET BLACKJACK BOMBER FIRING AS-15 MISSILE - Brian W. McMullin, 1987

The BLACKJACK bomber, developed in the 1980s, could carry nuclear-armed AS-15 cruise missiles for its strike and perform reconnaissance in a nuclear war. The new BLACKJACK along with the AS-15 long-range, air-launched cruise missile significantly increased the Soviet bomber force's weapons delivery capability and survivability.

slide31

A Soviet DELTA III nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine firing SS-N-18 missiles. The DELTA III submarine was 155 meters long, had 16 missile firing tubes, and carried SS-N-18 nuclear missiles.

slide32

SOVIET BALLISTIC MISSILE SUBMARINE BASE - The USSR's strategic nuclear forces included a growing number of new TYPHOON-class and DELTA IV-class strategic ballistic missile submarines deployed in the 1980s. These advanced submarines, fitted with the latest generations of nuclear missiles, could operate from bases with tunnels for protection.

slide33

SOVIET TBILISI-CLASS CARRIER AT NIKOLAYEV - The lead ship of the USSR's 65,000-metric ton TBILISI-class aircraft carriers being fitted out in the late 1980s in Nikolayev Shipyard. This carrier marked an evolutionary advance in naval capabilities over 40,000-metric ton KIEV-Class carriers then operating with the Soviet fleet.

slide34

Soviet ground-based laser - The Soviet Strategic Defense Program involved extensive research on advanced technologies in the 1980s. The USSR already had ground-based lasers, conceptually illustrated here, supposedly capable of interfering with some US satellites.

www.fas.org/

slide35

SOVIET SPACE-BASED STRATEGIC DEFENSES -While publicly opposed to the US Strategic Defense Initiative, the Soviet Union forged ahead with research and development of land-, air-, and space-based ballistic missile defenses. The Soviets had already deployed and tested ground-based lasers.

www.fas.org/

slide36

Ronald Reagan had won election to the White House in 1980 largely on a platform of getting tough with Communism. In a sense he was the last great Cold Warrior, labeling the USSR the “Evil Empire”. In 1983, maybe after watching Star Wars one too many times he announced a new defense program named the Space Defense Initiative, but popularly referred to as Star Wars after the popular science fiction movie. The basic concept was to create a space and land based defense system to protect us from Soviet attack. SDI was denounced by the scientific community as technologically unfeasible at that time, failing if there was a single mistake in the million lines of code needed to program one of these weapons. One of the early experiments in 1983-4 was the Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE), basically a giant pinwheel 13’ in diameter that would physically knock out an incoming missile-- if it could find it.

slide37

Artists’ concepts of what these high-tech systems in space would look like were effective in exciting and/or scaring the public, but gave no realistic idea of what it would cost to make something like this work. While we never put an operational space defense system in place during the Reagan years, the program has continued ever since and, with increasingly sophisticated technology may bear fruit. Currently the U.S. is testing a scaled down version of SDI which could intercept a few rogue missiles launched by a terrorist state such as North Korea or Iran. Such a scenario is very unlikely, since we could trace the origins of such a missile & respond with overwhelming force. A more likely nuclear threat is that of a suit case bomb smuggled into a US city which would be much harder to detect or trace.

slide38

In the 1980s, as the nuclear arms race picked up again, Ronald Reagan and British prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, found in each other a kindred soul in the fight to stop Communism.

slide40

No this isn’t today’s news headline. Rather, it’s the scenario envisioned in 1984 by a movie produced by BBC called Threads. Basically Threads is an update of 1965 film, The War Game, also produced by BBC. However, in this case, they decided to air this shocker to the public.

slide41

Threads was even more horrifying and realistic than The War Game. After all, since 1965 nuclear stockpiles, and with them, public fears about Nuclear War had multiplied several times over.

So had the ability of special effects studios to portray such horrors realistically.

slide42

As with most nuclear war films, Threads is mostly about the aftermath and its effects on the survivors. At the end of the film, the main character gives birth in a rundown “hospital” where there are no beds, only bed springs. In the last shot, she is shown her baby (which we never see), she screams in terror, and then the movie ends. In my experience this is the most depressing and frightening movie ever made.

slide43

Not that the Russians didn’t understand what sort of threat nuclear war was. In 1986, Konstantin Lopushansky released Letters from a Dead Man, a more surreal post-apocalyptic film. Among the chosen few who get to survive in an underground bunker is a Nobel prize winning scientist who writes letters to his son who had died in the blast. Blaming himself for the accident that triggered Armageddon, he takes care of a group of children who are mute, either from radiation or psychological trauma. When he dies they go up above into the raging blizzard of a continuous nuclear winter. If threads is the most depressing and scary movie I’ve ever seen, Letters from a Dead Man runs a close second.

slide44

Compared to Threads and Letters From A Dead Man, the American made-for-TV film, The Day After, seemed like a sunny day. In fact, unlike the other two films, it was mostly filmed in sunny weather, thus softening the effect a bit. However, it was scary enough that ABC warned against allowing children under the age of 11 to watch it.

One note of interest, The Day After was based on Charlottesville: A Fictional Account by Nan Randall, which was part of a wider series of government studies on the probable effects of various nuclear scenarios on the United States and Russia. In this case, the scenario concerned the effects of a nuclear war on a college town just out of the blast zone that demolished a major city. In the study, it looked at the impact of an attack on Washington, D.C. on Charlottesville, Virginia. In the movie, the two cities were Lawrence, Kansas and Kansas City.

slide47

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide48

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide49

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide50

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

US applies high tech to its weapons

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Different Effects on US & USSR:

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide51

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide52

This was our perspective and, briefly, that of the Russians on Gorbachev. He was certainly the most pivotal figure in resolving the Cold War peacefully. However, as with most reformers in his position throughout history, things got worse in Russia before they could get better, and he had to take the blame.

slide53

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide54

Chernobyl

(April 1986)

slide55

The Chernobyl nuclear meltdown in April 1986 was the worst such disaster in history. Although the Fukushima I nuclear incident following the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan 2011 was also a level 7 event, Chernobyl proved much more catastrophic, largely because there was no containment dome to keep the radiation from spreading.

slide56

A basic design flaw in the reactor was the backup system of diesel generators to maintain the flow of water to cool the core in case of the main reactor shutting down. The problem was that the generators needed more time (one minute) than was acceptable (fifteen seconds) for powering up to prevent a meltdown. Three tests of using residual power from the reactor to bridge the time gap had failed. On April 25, a fourth scheduled test shutdown to see if the diesel generators could power up in time was interrupted by a request from another power plant for electricity. Thus the day shift crews brought in for the experiment were gone when the test shutdown resumed that night. Unfortunately, that was when things started going wrong and the reactor was powered down to dangerous levels.

slide57

Then a huge power spike in the core of reactor four triggered several explosions that led to the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and the ignition of the graphite moderator, which released more radioactive particles. Making matters particularly bad was the lack of a containment dome, so radioactive gases kept spewing into the air, spreading across the western parts of the Soviet Union and into Europe.

slide58

A number of workers were quickly exposed to lethal doses of radiation and died. Several firemen who arrived on the scene in essence sacrificed their lives in efforts to put out the fires. Authorities tried to cover up the seriousness of the incident, not evacuating the nearby city of Prypiat until the following day. Even then, they told people to just bring enough supplies for three days. Since the area was soon closed off and remains so, the rest of their belongings still lie in their homes.

slide59

Soviet authorities didn’t announce the disaster until April 28 and after radiation levels triggered alarms at a Swedish power plant in Sweden 1000 kilometers away. Even then, they tried to minimize its seriousness.

slide60

Eventually, over 190 tons of highly radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere. The people around Chernobyl were exposed to radiation 90 times greater than that released by the Hiroshima bomb. According to the UN, 9 million people, including 4 million children, have been affected by the disaster.

There is still disagreement over whether there have been more cases of birth defects among humans (such as the hydrocephalic child pictured here)and animals since the meltdown and whether they were caused by it.

slide61

Radiation specialists expect nearly 1 million people to develop cancer as a direct result of the accident. In Belarus, next door to Ukraine, almost 400,000 people have been forced to leave their homes and become environmental refugees as a result of the contamination left by the explosion. Around 2,000 towns and villages have been abandoned and become a radioactive desert, overgrown with poisoned vegetation and fenced off by barbed wire.

slide63

Twenty years after the disaster 99% of the land in Belarus was still contaminated, while 25% of Belorussian farmland was a nuclear wasteland. Thyroid cancer had increased by 2,400; congenital birth defects by 250% and suicides in the contaminated areas by 1,000%.

slide64

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide65

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide66

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide67

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide68

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide69

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide70

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Steady erosion of public support & ability to control E. Eur Sudden collapse of Communism

USSR breaks into Russia & other ind. states (1991)

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Warsaw Pact dissolves (1989) & Germany reunifies

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide71

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Steady erosion of public support & ability to control E. Eur Sudden collapse of Communism

USSR breaks into Russia & other ind. states (1991)

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Warsaw Pact dissolves (1989) & Germany reunifies

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide74

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Steady erosion of public support & ability to control E. Eur Sudden collapse of Communism

USSR breaks into Russia & other ind. states (1991)

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Warsaw Pact dissolves (1989) & Germany reunifies

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

slide75

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Steady erosion of public support & ability to control E. Eur Sudden collapse of Communism

USSR breaks into Russia & other ind. states (1991)

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Warsaw Pact dissolves (1989) & Germany reunifies

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

A

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

Newly indep. states & Russia struggle to adapt to high tech Capitalist world of 1990s (FC.150)

slide76

FC .149 THE END OF THE COLD WAR (1981-91)

Aggressive rearmament under Pres. Reagan in 1980s:

Proposes Space Defense Initiative (SDI)  Though unfeasible, scares Sov’s who think US can do it

Expanding sophistic. & use of computers

Long overdue reforms launched by new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, in mid 1980s:

Reforms continue in efforts to stop further deterioration

Conditions get even worse before reforms can take effect

Steady erosion of public support & ability to control E. Eur Sudden collapse of Communism

USSR breaks into Russia & other ind. states (1991)

Reduces mil. burden & tensions w/ treaty to reduce nuclear weapons & by pulling divisions from E. Eur.

Encourages: more democ. & some free markets

Warsaw Pact dissolves (1989) & Germany reunifies

Russians & E. Eur’s learn more about W  Want more

Soaring mil. budgets Steadily weaker econ.

Russians & E. Eur’s frustrated w/Com’s mediocrity

Builds up both conventional & nuclear forces

Sov. Dilemma over using computers:

Using them  Pop. can learn about world outside SU

Not using them Sov. tech. falls more behind

Encourages free speech Criticism of Comm. system

Despite weaker econ, SU tries to keep up w/US

OPEC members break ranks & lower oil prices

Different Effects on US & USSR:

Less oil revenue for USSR, an oil exporter Hurts Econ.

Less oil expenses for US, an oil importer Helps Econ

US applies high tech to its weapons

Need to spend bigger % of GDP to keep up w/US

Computer microchip in 1970s (FC.148)

OPEC cuts oil prod. & raises prices (FC.146.2)

Apparent milit. Strength of USSR & weakness of US in late 1970s (FC.148)

Newly indep. states & Russia struggle to adapt to high tech Capitalist world of 1990s (FC.150)

slide77

The Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) was triggered by a boundary dispute over control of the Shatt-al-Arab waterway. Iran claimed Iraq started the war by invading on 9/21/1980. Iraq said it started with Iranian shelling on 9/4l. Much of the cause was Sadaam Hussein’s fear of Iran stirring up Shi’ites in Iraq. Except for Libya and Syria, Arab states supported Iraq, as did both USSR and US, all of them worried about a radical Shi’ite revolution spreading throughout the region.

slide78

While supplying Iraq with satellite photos of Iranian positions to help direct Sadaam Hussein’s chemical attacks, the US also secretly sold arms to Iran and Iranian supported militia. This was to procure cash with which to secretly and illegally support the Contras in their attempt to overthrow the Communist Sandinista governemtn in Nicaragua. This blew up in 1987 as the Irangate scandal which damaged the Reagan administration’s credibility.

slide79

The war had its ebb and flow, with Iraq winning in the early stages, but losing ground later. Luckily for Sadaam Hussein, Iranian military successes were largely undone by insistence of the religious leaders to take over military strategy from the generals. Their better judgment clouded by ideology, they replaced the professionals’ successful tactics with senseless human wave tactics that led to horrific casualties reminiscent of World War I. Even children, having no sense of the realities of war and death in battle, were used to spearhead these attacks.