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A Strategic Framework for Library Automation. Moving Beyond Web 2.0 Toward a vision for the next-generation . Abstract.

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a strategic framework for library automation

A Strategic Framework for Library Automation

Moving Beyond Web 2.0

Toward a vision for the next-generation


Blogs, wikis, social tagging, and other Web 2.0-inspired constructs, now commonplace, have become their own silos within the libraries' overall web presence. It's time for Web 2.0 to grow up and move into the strategic infrastructure that supports the library mission. No longer should blogs and wikis exist as stand-alone tangents and social computing be an afterthought to the overall computing environment. Breeding proposes a transformation of the way libraries approach their web presence that systematically blends Web 2.0 concepts into the fabric of its supporting technologies. Hear his tips for building on what we've learned from Web 2.0 to create an enterprise environment that more effectively supports the strategic mission of libraries.

  • Web 2.0 Context
  • Web 2.0 critique
  • The demise of the legacy ILS model
  • A new vision of library automation that blends new concepts of an ILS with collaborative and social computing
key library technology strategy
Key library technology strategy
  • Support the core mission of the library
  • Deliver library content and services
  • Automation for all aspects of library operations
web 1 0
Web 1.0
  • Static Web
  • Information silos
  • One-way communication
web 2 0
Web 2.0
  • Coined by O’Rielly Media in 2004
  • Web + Social Computing
  • Dynamic Content
  • Highly interactive
  • Collaborative
  • Focus on the user
  • Focus on communities
web 2 0 examples
Web 2.0 examples
  • RSS delivery of content
  • Blogs – Web logs + comments
  • Wikis – content created in community
  • Instant Messaging, SMS,
  • Voice over IP – Skype
  • Podcasting
  • vlogs
web 2 0 supporting technologies
Web 2.0 supporting technologies
  • Web services
  • XML APIs
  • AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML)
  • Microformats
  • OpenSearch vs SRU/SRW
web 2 0 media
Web 2.0 media
  • Rich media – beyond text
  • Music and audio
    • Well experienced: File swapping, p2p, iPod, MP3
  • Video
    • Recreational and academic: youtube.com, myspace.com/video, yahoo! Video, bittorrent
  • Opportunities to remix. Usually recreational, but explore ways to tap this interest with an academic slant.
the sprit of web 2 0
The sprit of Web 2.0
  • YouTube
  • Facebook
  • MySpace
  • Flickr
library 2 0
Library 2.0
  • First mentioned by Michael Casey
  • Web 2.0 + Library = Library 2.0
  • Apply Web 2.0 concepts to library applications
  • Library Blogs
  • New book lists through RSS
  • Wikis
    • Intranets for staff documentation
    • Collaborative resources for library users
  • Enriched library catalogs
  • User participation in library resources
    • User tagging in catalog
    • Reviews
    • Ratings
web 2 0 benefits
Web 2.0 Benefits
  • Major improvements in library Web presence
  • Better engagement of library users
  • Fuels energy and engagement of librarians
  • Sparks Innovation
beyond web 2 0
Beyond Web 2.0
  • Web 2.0 concepts already 4+ years old
  • Time to start considering next phases of Web development
  • Many libraries have implemented Web 2.0 concepts in ad hoc ways
  • There has been a proliferation of Web 2.0 silos that are not well integrated with the strategic technology infrastructure that libraries rely on for the automation of their operations and for the delivery of their content and services on the Web
  • Better integration of new Web concepts into library technology infrastructure
web 3 0
Web 3.0
  • Web 2.0 + artificial intelligence
  • Semantic Web
  • Web 2.0 + enterprise computing
some of the problems with current web 2 0 efforts
Some of the problems with current Web 2.0 efforts
  • Many/Most Web 2.0 projects result in silos of content
  • No way to integrate Web 2.0 applications with other content managed by a library
  • Often isolated from the key mission of delivering content and services to users
  • Can even push users out of the library Web presence when we need to be funneling them inward
  • Sustainability: many dead library blogs
web 2 0 systems architecture
Web 2.0 Systems Architecture
  • Uncoordinated matrix of data and users
  • No curation of content residing in Web 2.0 applications
  • Lack of interoperability of Web 2.0 applications
  • Lack of identity management. Web 2.0 applications inherently rely on user interaction with content. Currently there are few Web 2.0 applications that integrate with the identity of library patrons as managed by their basic automation infrastructure. E.g. ILS.
what s beyond web 2 0
What’s beyond Web 2.0?
  • Don’t plateau at Web 2.0 but continue the evolution of library technologies toward a fully collaborative model of computing.
  • Must evolve into an organized fabric of interrelated Web services.
  • Evolve Web 2.0 to enterprise technologies
state of library automation
State of library automation
  • Largely in the Web 1.0 realm
  • Fragmented set of tools for library automation
  • Fragment user experience
  • Next-generation catalogs helping to move into Web 2.0
problems with the legacy opac
Problems with the legacy OPAC
  • A look and feel that may not meet the expectations of the current generation of Web-savvy users.
  • The conventional library environment requires users to interact with many different interfaces, and search many different resources.
  • Overly complex
  • Not always intuitive
  • Users have to go to different places to find different kinds of information on a given topic: Library OPAC for books, Article and E-journal locators for articles.
an urgent need
An urgent need
  • Baby boomers and Gen X’rs are happier with traditional forms of content and existing modes of service
  • Millennials will move on to non-library provided information sources and services if not readily satisfied
  • There is a lot at stake for the future of libraries in adapting to generational transitions.
  • Web 2.0 provides a metaphor and model for adapting library services to today’s Web-savvy users.
web 2 0 flavorings
Web 2.0 flavorings
  • A more social and collaborative approach
  • Web Tools and technology that foster collaboration
  • Blogs, wiki, blogs, tagging, social bookmarking, user rating, user reviews
library opac 1 0
Library OPAC 1.0
  • Feature rich, but complex
  • Advanced Boolean Search
  • Textual displays
  • Results in alphabetical or catalog key order
  • Slow, cumbersome
  • Focused on the physical inventory
change underway
Change underway
  • Widespread dissatisfaction with most of the current OPACs. Many efforts toward next-generation catalogs and interfaces.
  • Movement among libraries to break out of the current mold of library catalogs and offer new interfaces better suited to the expectations of library users.
  • Decoupling of the front-end interface from the back-end library automation system.
working toward next generation library interfaces
Working toward next generation library interfaces
  • Redefinition of the library catalog
  • More comprehensive information discovery environments
  • Better information delivery tools
  • More powerful search capabilities
  • More elegant presentation
redefinition of library catalogs
Redefinition of library catalogs
  • Traditional notions of the library catalog are being questioned
  • It’s no longer enough to provide a catalog limited to print resources
  • Digital resources cannot be an afterthought
  • Forcing users to use different interfaces depending on type of content becoming less tenable
  • Libraries working toward consolidated search environments that give equal footing to digital and print resources
library opac 2 0
Library OPAC 2.0
  • Satisfying to the Web-savvy user
  • Faceted browsing – drill-down model of search
  • Graphical displays – cover art images
  • Enriched content – TOC, summaries
  • User tagging, folksonomies, ratings, reviews
  • Federated search as a separate service
provide an integrated user experience
Provide an integrated user experience
  • Tag items in catalog
  • System delivers content in ways that take into account the preferences and previous selections of users
    • Recommendation services
    • Option for relevancy based on user’s past search behavior
  • Reviews and ratings
library opac 3 0
Library OPAC 3.0
  • Comprehensive search environment:
    • Digital on equal footing with print
    • Federated search as an integrated service: access to full-text of subscribed content
  • Beyond MARC metadata: Dublin Core XML, Onix, etc: full-text searching
  • Searching “inside the book”
  • Integrated resource sharing architecture
  • A more social OPAC with built-in tools for collaboration
  • Fully integrated with other community and campus resources
  • ILS fully integrated with other information and business systems
  • One-click fulfillment
deep search
Deep search
  • Entering post-metadata search era
  • Increasing opportunities to search the full contents
    • Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open Content Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search, etc.
    • High-quality metadata will improve search precision
  • Commercial search providers already offer “search inside the book”
  • No comprehensive full text search for books quite yet
  • Not currently available through library search environments
  • Deep search highly improved by high-quality metadata

See: Systems Librarian, May 2008 “Beyond the current generation of next-generation interfaces: deeper search”

beyond web 2 038
Beyond Web 2.0
  • Readying library collections and catalogs for the next generation will require more than a cosmetic touch-up
  • Prompts libraries to accelerate changes already underway
multiple fronts
Multiple fronts
  • Continued development of new interfaces that embrace collaborative computing
  • Reinvent basic automation systems
  • Provide better support for the collaboration and user interactivity into the core automation infrastructure.
rethinking the ils
Rethinking the ILS
  • Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital = Hybrid libraries
  • Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid libraries
  • Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS with additional modules to handle electronic content
  • New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS OPACS
  • Working toward a new model of library automation
    • Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA applications
    • Comprehensive Resource Management

“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007

ils still in web 1 0 realm
ILS still in Web 1.0 realm
  • The current ILS model does not lend itself to Web 2.0 concepts
  • Front-end evolving, back-end modules locked into legacy models
ils a legacy concept
ILS: a legacy concept?
  • ILS = Integrated Library System

(Cataloging + Circulation + OPAC + Serials + Acquisitions)

  • Focused on print and physical inventory
  • Electronic content at the Journal Title or collection level
  • Emerged in the 1960’s – 1970’s
  • Functionality has evolved and expanded, but basic concepts and modules remain intact
  • Note: Some companies work toward evolving the ILS to competently handle both print and digital content (e.g. Innovative Interfaces)
ils ever diminishing role
ILS: ever diminishing role
  • Many libraries putting much less emphasis on ILS
  • Just an inventory system for physical materials
  • Investments in electronic content increasing
  • Management of e-content handled outside of the ILS
  • Yet: libraries need comprehensive business automation more than ever. Mandate for more efficient operations. Do more with less.
dis integration of library automation functionality
Dis-integration of Library Automation Functionality
  • ILS -- Print and Physical inventory
  • OpenURL Link resolver
  • Federated Search
  • Repositories and digital collection platforms
  • Electronic Resource Management Module
  • Discovery layer interface
  • Blogs
  • Wiki’s
  • Intranets
is non integrated automation sustainable
Is non-integrated automation sustainable?
  • Major burden on library personnel
  • Serial procurement / installation / configuration / maintenance cycles take many years to result in a comprehensive environment
  • Inefficient data models
  • Disjointed interfaces for library users
  • Very long cycle to gain comprehensive automation
breaking down the modules
Breaking down the modules
  • Traditional ILS
    • Cataloging
    • Circulation
    • Online Catalog
    • Acquisitions
    • Serials control
    • Reporting
  • Modern approach: SOA
legacy ils e content modules





Legacy ILS + e-content modules

End User








Federated Search



Library Blog

Library Wiki

Data Stores:

Staff Interfaces:

soa model for business automation
SOA model for business automation
  • Underlying data repositories
    • Local or Global
  • Reusable business services
  • Composite business applications
soa for library workflow processes
SOA for library workflow processes








Data Stores:

new models for library automation
New models for library automation
  • Discard traditional modules and add-ons
  • Broad conceptual approach that proposes a library automation environment that spans all types of content that comprise library collections.
  • Close attention to defining services in ways that invite participation from individuals and groups
  • Inherent design for resource sharing
fulfillment oriented
Fulfillment oriented
  • Search works more like shopping
  • Content silos > syndicated content providers
  • Fulfillment = Circulation + ILL + Consortial borrowing +
example blog module for ils
Example: Blog module for ILS
  • Create interoperability for traditional Web 2.0 functionality
  • Become part of library discovery environment
  • Curated content
  • Makes use of patron profile in the ILS
open library environment ole project
Open Library Environment (OLE) project
  • Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
    • Research in Information Technology program
  • Duke University selected to lead project
  • Core Participants: Kansas University, Lehigh University, National Library of Australia, Library and Archives Canada, University of Pennsylvania, Marshall Breeding
  • Advisory Participants: University of Chicago, Wittier College, University of Maryland, ORBIS Cascade Alliance, Rutgers University
  • Working toward a next-generation library automation environment based on SOA and business process modeling.


  • Web 2.0 community:
    • Evolution toward enterprise approach
    • Explore ways to bring concepts into systems that deliver core content and services
  • Automation Vendors
    • More modern systems based on services oriented architecture
    • Embrace collaborative computing and social networking
    • Better interoperability
    • Fewer isolated products
  • Open source community
    • Work toward new generation of library automation
    • Not simply open source versions of legacy systems
challenges and opportunities abound
Challenges and Opportunities abound
  • An exciting time for libraries
  • Web 2.0 fuels new excitement for modernizing library services and supporting technologies
  • Projects underway that attempt a more comprehensive approach for library automation
  • Need to bring Web 2.0 concepts into the core of library automation