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  1. JOINT ITU/WIPO SYMPOSIUM MULTILINGUAL DOMAIN NAMES Hirofumi Hotta December 6, 2001 http://日本レジストリサービス.jp

  2. 1,2 ASCII characters in the Internet • The Internet as the birth • Born in the United States • Research and academic users • Limited resources in computers and communication devices • Only ASCII codes are used for the core of the Internet Only ASCII characters have been used even by people using non-ASCII characters in social life

  3. Ex) non-English characters in e-mail • Step1 • Phonetic mapping in e-mail texts • Step2 • Native language characters in e-mail texts • Step3 • Native language characters in “Subject” fields • Step4 ? • Native language characters in “To” and “From” field • Names such as company names and personal names in the social relevant context should be presented in their native language

  4. What is a domain name ? • Human readable identifier of an entity within the Internet : Ex) • Substitute of an IP address domain name top level domain label second level domain label third level domain label each label < 63 characters domain name < 255 characters = =

  5. Domain name structure “ ” jp com org uk au int .. .. co or go ad itu yahoo sun wipo nic WWW jprs WWW

  6. Characters in domain names Computer Engineers LDH (letters-digits-hyphen) • Consumers • ASCII character set users • Natively ex) English • In transliterated form ex) Malay • Non-ASCII character set users • Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arabic, Tamil, …. Wider users ???

  7. Demands on multilingual domain names • Rapid growth of the Internet • More non-English speakers are becoming Internet users • People using non-ASCII characters • Undesirable unification in LDH world • 博文, 博史, 宏史, …..are all “hirofumi”s in ASCII space • Apostrophe, accents, umlauts, ….. cannot be used in ASCII space Demand on multilingual domain names

  8. 3 History (technology) • Late 1990s • Multilingual domain names were developed at the National University of Singapore • July 1998 • Asia Pacific Networking Group • iDNS Working group : development of the experimental implementation of an Internationalized multilingual multiscript Domain Names Service • Why shouldn’t domain names be internationalized too, now that the Internet has grown to reach almost every corner of the world using different languages? • iDomain Working Group : creation of an iDNS testbed in Asia Pacific countries • China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, ….

  9. History (technology) - continued • 1998-1999 • Prototypes demonstrated in international conferences • BoFs held in international conferences • APRICOT • INET • Singapore, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, … expressed interests in implementation • Nov. 1999 • BoF in IETF • IETF Mailing list discussion • Jan. 2000 - • IDN (Internationalized Domain Name) Working Group in IETF

  10. History (deployment) • End of 1999 • Several companies began commercialization of the multilingual domain name technology • Several testbeds emerged • July 2000 - • MINC (Multilingual Domain Names Consortium) • promotion of the multilingualization of Internet names, including Internet domain names and keywords, the internationalization of Internet names standards and protocols, technical coordination, and liaison with other international bodies • Country/regional organizations • AINC (Arabic Internet Names Consortium) • CDNC (Chinese Domain Name Consortium ) • INFITT (International Forum for IT in Tamil ) • JDNA (Japanese Domain Names Association )

  11. History (policy) • March 2001 • Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) Working Group in ICANN Board • Fact finding survey concerning technical, policy, and service aspects • Survey report published in Sept. 2001 • Market demand shown • List of issues elaborated • GAC (Governmental Advisory Committee) of ICANN • communiqué expressing GAC’s support for multilingual domain names • With regard to international domain names, the GAC confirms the importance and interests of this development to the benefit of Internet users worldwide • Sept. 2001 • IDN Committee • Will recommend solutions of non-technical issues

  12. 4 How domain names are resolved root server managed by IANA IP address of .com name server IP address of .int name server IP address of .jp name server : .int name server managed by IANA on behalf of .int IP address of name server IP address of name server : Internet managed by ITU name server IP address of IP address of : A server having http port intend to browse

  13. Where multilingual domain names are recognized Internet application DNS user client application server application PC ASCII domain names currently in the future multilingual domain names ASCII domain names option 1 multilingual domain names option 2

  14. Key technical questions • How should non-ASCII codes be represented ? <Q1> • Where should non-ASCII codes be recognized ? <Q2> • in the client application / in the DNS server • What is the technical mechanism that maps multilingual domain names to current DNS technology ? <Q3>

  15. Basic technical requirements • Preservation of compatibility with current domain names • Preservation of uniqueness of domain name space • The Internet must not be divided into islands Required by IAB (Internet Architecture Board)

  16. Character codes of multilingual domain names <Q1> • Current : proprietary (local) standard • in PCs • in PDAs • in Internet-enabled phones • Best current solution may be • UNICODE • Specification of code sets of many languages • Additional issues • traditional Chinese characters / simplified Chinese characters • Are they same characters in domain names ? • Is this a local code issue or universal protocol issue ?

  17. Client-side vs. Server-side solutions <Q2> • Client-side solution • Translation between multilingual script and ASCII-compatible representation is performed in the user application • Domain names are processed as ASCII domain names all over the Internet • Server-side solution • Domain names are sent over the Internet in local encoding • Applications and services communicate with each other using non-ASCII domain names all the way user application DNS multilingual domain names ASCII domain names client-side solution multilingual domain names server-side solution

  18. Client-side solution > Server-side solution • IETF is moving towards client-side solution • Stability • DNS is a huge distributed database • DNS is working on a delicate balance • Substantial change of DNS is dangerous • Deployment speed • Changing all the servers takes long time • Consistency • Partial deployment of server-side solution may lead to separation of the Internet

  19. How multilingual string is converted to ASCII ex) <Q3> ABCカンパニー.JP ABCカンパニー.JP ABCカンハ゜ニー.JP original string NAMEPREP unification of the strings considered to be the same ex) normalized string ABCカンパニー.JP ACE conversion to an ASCII string ex) ASCII string Internet (based on ASCII) BQ--GD7UD72C75B2X46RZP6A.JP

  20. NAMEPREP and ACE • NAMEPREP (Preparation of Internationalized Host Names) • Multilingual string representations which should be regarded as the same string are converted into one representation • Case fold • Normalize • Prohibit • ACE (ASCII Compatible Encoding) • Multilingual representation is converted into an appropriate ASCII domain name • Ex) ACE algorithm • RACE • BQ--3BS6KZZMRKPDBSJQ4EYKIMHTKQGU7CY • AMC-ACE-Z • ZQ--ECKWD4C7CU47R2WFQW7A0ECL32K

  21. Issues in using ACE • Subspace is used by multilingual domain names • Issues • Reservation of the subspace • Length limitation is severer • Domain label • Domain name ACE ACE-ed Multilingual Domain Names Multilingual Domain Names decode ASCII Domain Names

  22. IDNA (Internationalizing Host Names in Applications) local user application UI to/from Unicode To/From Unicode NAMEPREP NAMEPREP internal representation end system to/from ACE To/From ACE resolver API international DNS servers application servers

  23. 5 Impact on the DNS structure multilingualized • Alternate root Name Server Name Server Name Server Hierarchy overseen by ICANN authoritative root multilingual domain name space multilingual domain name space TLDs not authorized by ICANN

  24. Impact on the DNS structure (continued) • Inclusive root (variation of alternate root) multilingualized Name Server Hierarchy overseen by ICANN multilingual domain name space unauthorized TLDs can be seen together with ICANN’s

  25. Impact on the DNS structure (continued) • Pseudo-root (zero level domain) 銀行.企業 Name Server 銀行.企業.jp append “.jp” to “銀行.企業” Hierarchy overseen by ICANN jp 企業 multilingual domain name space 銀行

  26. Defining a multilingual top level domain • Current implementation of multilingual domain names • Second level domain or under • Allowed by current DNS architecture and technology • Top level domain • Alternate root • Inclusive root • Pseudo-root • Above are only to satisfy commercial drive or users’ demands on early deployment of multilingual domain names • It is important for ICANN to define a multilingual top level domain creation policy

  27. 6 Issues in various TLDs • {non-ASCII-string}.{ASCII-ccTLD} • {non-ASCII-string}.{ASCII-gTLD} • Organizations already being authorized are responsible for the domain name space • {any-string}.{non-ASCII-ccTLD} • One organization from the relevant country is named to be responsible for the domain name space • If a country has more than 1 official language, • What is the language for non-ASCII-ccTLD, or • How many non-ASCII-ccTLDs are given to the country • {any-string}.{non-ASCII-gTLD} • No one can tell whether top level domain “.企業” is Chinese or Japanese • Difficulty in choosing a responsible organization • who in what country

  28. Other political issues • What are the languages that constitute multilingual domain names • Some languages have 2 or more kinds of scripts • Traditional Chinese/simplified Chinese • Who is the language authority for multilingual domain names • Should rules be the same even under different TLDs? • A single domain name registry should not be the ultimate authority of for the rules • Is such rule definition an international issue? • Language rules are known to only people using the language • To what extent does the solution need international standard or local coordination? • Each language stakeholders should coordinate among themselves

  29. 7 Implementations • VGRS (VeriSign Global Registry Services) • JPNIC/JPRS (Japan Network Information Center / Japan Registry Service) • • CNNIC (China Internet Network Information Center) • Walid • Neteka • NativeNames : :

  30. 8 Future Issues growth of the number of multilingual domain names and their users synergy deployment of name servers with multilingual domain names applications with multilingual domain name facilities policy and coordination of registration and management rules technology standardization and development