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Chapter 26. Vertebrates A Summary. AP Biology Spring 2011. Chordates. Vertebrates include: Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Are coelomate, bilateral animals. Chordates. Many of 4 anatomical features that characterize chordates appear only during embryonic development

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chapter 26

Chapter 26


A Summary

AP Biology

Spring 2011

  • Vertebrates include:
    • Fish
    • Amphibians
    • Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Mammals
  • Are coelomate,

bilateral animals

  • Many of 4 anatomical features that characterize chordates appear only during embryonic development
    • Notochord: long, flexible rod that appears during embryonic development between the digestive tube and the dorsal nerve cord
    • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord: formed from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a hollow tube
    • Pharyngeal clefts: grooves that separate a series of pouches along the sides of the pharynx; in most chordates the clefts develop into slits that allow water to enter and exit he mouth without going through the digestive tract
    • A muscular tail posterior to the anus
  • Have an internal skeleton and big brain
  • Internal skeleton: enlcoses and protects internal organs and works with muscles to produce movement
    • Have several advantages of external skeletons:
      • Cells are living so skeleton foes not have to be molted
      • Allows for greater flexibility
      • Is lightweight
  • Notochord develops into vertebral column which encloses and protects spinal cord
  • Have large brains with paired eyes and ears
  • With the exception of lampreys, have jaws
  • Circulatory and respiratory system
    • Paired gills evolved in early vertebrates and allowed for faster, more efficient gas exchange
    • Before transition to land, several species of fish developed small outpouchings in the side of the gut that evolved into lungs
    • Have a closed circulatory system which makes circulation faster
    • Gradually, there was less reliance on gills and more on lungs and circulatory system (heart, blood vessels), which work in connection
  • Other organ systems
    • Have paired kidneys to deal with internal fluid composition
    • Reproduce sexually
    • Have well developed immune system
  • Vertebrates that have jaws
  • Jaws of vertebrates evolved from modification of skeletal parts that had once supported the pharyngeal (gill) slits
  • Class Chondrichthyes: sharks and rays
    • Have flexible endoskeletons composed of cartilage, possess streamlined bodies, are denser than water, will sink if stop swimming
  • Class Osteichthyes: bony fish
    • Most numerous of vertebrate groups
    • Two main classes of bony fish are ray finned and lobed fins
    • Have an ossified endoskeleton, covered in scales, posses a swim bladder
  • Fish
  • Are cold blooded vertebrates that have:
    • Gills
    • Scales
    • Two chambered heart
  • Tetrapods that have four limbs and feet
  • Class amphibia
    • Not all have legs
    • Frogs
  • Cold-blooded
  • Initially breath through gills
  • Then develop lungs
  • Can also exchange gas through their moist skin
  • Have a three chambered heart
  • Close ties with water
  • Their eggs lack a shell
  • Fertilization is external
  • Can exhibit complex social behaviour
  • Tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg
  • Consist of mammals and reptiles and birds
  • Amniotic egg
    • Important evolutionary development for life on land
    • Have shell that retains water and can be laid in a dry environment
    • Have extraembryonic membranes that function in gas exchange, waste storage and transport of nutrients to embryo
  • Cold-blooded
  • Have eggs with a chitinous covering
    • Lay eggs on land
    • Undergo internal fertilization
  • Have a four chambered heart
  • First vertebrates to have internal fertilization
  • Have scales containing keratin
    • Adaptation for terrestrial living
  • Obtain oxygen through their lungs, not skin
  • Extinct reptiles:
    • Dinosaurs (lived on land)
    • Pterosaurs (flying reptiles)
    • Plesiosaurs (marine reptiles)
  • Modern reptiles:
    • Turtles, tuataras, lizards, snakes, alligators, crocodiles
  • Most are ectothermic
    • Regulate body temperature through behavioral adaptations rather than by metabolism
  • Birds
  • Warm-blooded
  • Have eggs with shells
    • Lay amniotic eggs
  • Wings, feathers, hollow bones
  • Four-chambered heart
    • High rate of metabolism
  • Have keratin containing scales on their legs
  • Scales and eggs are reptilian characteristics
  • Most birds bodies are constructed for flight:
    • Light, hollow bones
    • Relatively few organs
    • Wings
    • Feathers
  • Endotherms: maintain warm, consistent body temperature
  • Feathers and in some cases a layer of fat insulate birds and help maintain internal temperature
  • Have larger brains than amphibians and nonbird reptiles do
  • Warm-blooded (endotherms)
  • Active metabolism
  • Most are born rather than hatched
  • Use internal fertilization
  • Large brains
  • Four-chambered heart
  • Have hair and produce milk to feed their young
  • All have teeth of differing size and shape
  • Some have a placenta (eutherians)
    • Structure that nourishes fetus
    • Embryo develops internally in a uterus connected to mother by placenta, where nutrients diffuse from mother to embryo
  • Marsupials do not have a placenta
    • Developing embryo receives little nourishment from mother in the uterus
    • About eight days after fertilization, fetus must continue its maturation in mother’s pouch (nurses)
  • Monotremes: egg laying mammals
    • Duck billed platypus and spiny anteater
    • Derive nutrients from shelled egg
mammalia primates
Mammalia: Primates
  • Humans are primates
  • Primates descended from insectivores, probably from small, tree dwelling mammals
  • Have dexterous hands and opposable thumbs
    • Make it possible to do fine motor tasks
  • Nails have replaced claws
  • Hands and fingers contain many nerve endings and are sensitive
mammalia primates1
Mammalia: Primates
  • Eyes are front facing and set close together
    • Front facing eyes fosters face-to-face communication
    • Close set eyes are responsible for overlapping fields of vision, which enhances depth perception and hand-eye cordination
mammalia primates2
Mammalia: Primates
  • Devote much energy to parenting of young
    • Engage in most intense parenting of any mammal
  • Usually have single births and nurture young for long time period
mammalia primates3
Mammalia: Primates
  • Include:
    • Humans
    • Gorillas
    • Chimpanzees
    • Orangutans
    • Gibbons
    • Old world and new world monkeys