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Chapter 2-3 - the

Chapter 2-3 - the

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Chapter 2-3 - the

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  1. Chapter 2-3 - the MOLECULES of life

  2. What we eat!

  3. And..What we fart!

  4. Organic Compounds • Organic Compounds contain Carbon. • Carbon is an important element because… • It forms 4 bonds. • Tends to form strong covalent bonds.

  5. Organic Compounds • Can combine to form: • single, double & triple bonds as well as • chains • branches and rings.

  6. We will practice buildingthese today!

  7. Organic Compounds • Functional groups help determine properties of organic compounds • All are polar because oxygen or nitrogen exert a strong pull on shared electrons • Polarity tends to make these molecules hydrophilic (water-loving) • A necessity for life!

  8. Table 3.2 Functional groups of organic compounds X

  9. Functional groups • Activity 3B – online textbook

  10. Organic Compounds • There are 4 major categories of organic compounds: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids

  11. MAcromolecules • Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids are macromolecules. • This means they are BIG molecules.

  12. Organic Compounds • They are made of smaller molecules that serve as the building blocks. • Like a brick is the building block for a brick wall these smaller molecules combine to create the macromolecules.

  13. Organic Compounds • Smaller Molecules (Building Blocks/subunits) = monomers • Larger Molecules = polymers

  14. Making & Breaking Polymers Condensation Reaction /Dehydration Synthesis Remove water Monomer Polymer Add water Hydrolysis Reaction

  15. Dehydration synthesis Removing water to build a polymer

  16. Hydrolysis Adding water to break down a polymer

  17. Carbohydrates • Why does our body (and all living things) need this molecule? • Provides ENERGY • Where do we get this molecule? • Pasta, Potatoes, Rice, Candy, Soda, Sugar

  18. Carbohydrates Which is the polymer and which is the monomer? Polymer! Monomer!

  19. Carbohydrates • Monomers of carbs = monosaccharide • Mono means 1, saccharide means sugar • Common examples are: • Glucose (grains) • Fructose (fruit) • Galactose (milk)

  20. H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose Figure 3.4B Structures of glucose and fructose

  21. H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose Count up the atoms for each

  22. H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose

  23. H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose Isomers – Same molecular formula, different structural formula

  24. CH2OH 6 CH2OH C O 5 H O O H H H H H C C 1 4 OH H OH H OH HO OH OH C C 2 3 H OH H OH Simplified structure Structural formula Abbreviated structure Figure 3.4C Three representations of the ring form of glucose

  25. Carbohydrates • Functional Groups • Functional groups are groups of atoms that give a molecule its characteristic properties. • Carbohydrates have 2 functional groups = • Hydroxyl -OH • Carbonyl -COH

  26. Carbohydrates • Here you see 2 monosaccharides coming together to form a disaccharide. • What type of reaction is this? _______________________________ Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction

  27. Carbohydrates • Polymers = • Dissaccharide (two) • Common examples are: • Sucrose - sugar • Maltose – grains (beer) • Lactose - milk Lactose

  28. Table 3.6 Sweetness scale

  29. Carbohydrates • Polysaccharide (many) • Common examples are: • Starch - potato • Cellulose – plant cell walls • Glycogen - animals

  30. Glucose monomer STARCH Starch granules in potato tuber cells O O O O O O O O O O O Glycogen granules in muscle tissue GLYCOGEN O O O O O O O O O O O O O Cellulose fibrils in a plant cell wall CELLULOSE O O OH O Cellulose molecules O O O O OH O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Figure 3.7 Polysaccharides

  31. Benedict’s Testfor Monosaccharides - +

  32. Iodine Test for Polysaccharides

  33. Making & Breaking Polymers Remove Water Condensation Reaction / Dehydration Synthesis Monomer Polymer Add Water Hydrolysis Reaction

  34. Lipids • Why does our body (and all living things) need this molecule? • Stores ENERGY • Insulation & Protection • Make up cell membranes (provide boundaries) • Where do we get this molecule? • Dairy products, Meat, Oil

  35. Lipids Triglyceride

  36. Lipids • Monomers • Glycerol • Fatty Acids • Saturated Fatty Acids • All Single Bonds • Found in animals • Solid at room temperature • Unsaturated Fatty Acids • At least 1 double or triple bond • Found in plants • Liquid at room temperature Animation

  37. Hydrogenated oils • To convert an oil into a solid at room temp. • Add hydrogens • Decreases the number of double bonds

  38. Lipids • Functional Groups = • Hydroxyl • Carboxyl

  39. Lipids • Here you see 2 glycerol combining with a fatty acid in a dehydration reaction. This happens 3 times to create a triglyceride. • animation

  40. Lipids • Polymers = • Are very diverse BUT they are all hydrophobic • Examples; • Triglyceride • Steroids • Wax • Phospholipids

  41. H3C CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 HO Figure 3.9 Cholesterol, a steroid A steroid – cholesterol. A molecule that is needed for cell membrane stability. Excess cholesterol due to consumption of fatty foods can lead to health problems like atherosclerosis (clogging of the arteries)

  42. Anabolic steroids • Synthetic variants of male hormone – testosterone • Anabolism – building of substances by the body • Mimics testosterone which builds muscle tissue Overdosing – leads to serious side effects - depression, liver damage, shrunken testicles, breast development

  43. Figure 3.8A Water beading on the naturally oily coating of feathers

  44. Drop each food sample onto a paper bag. Hold up to the light, it will turn translucent if lipids are present. • Sudan red is lipid soluble. The sudan red will stain the lipid layer. Solid red.

  45. Sudan Red Test For Lipids - +

  46. Proteins • Why does our body (and all living things) need this molecule? • Make up our structure (actin in muscles, hemoglobin and antibodies in blood, etc)

  47. Figure 3.11 Structural and contractile proteins