Chapter 2-3 - the MOLECULES of life
Organic Compounds • Organic Compounds contain Carbon. • Carbon is an important element because… • It forms 4 bonds. • Tends to form strong covalent bonds.
Organic Compounds • Can combine to form: • single, double & triple bonds as well as • chains • branches and rings.
Organic Compounds • Functional groups help determine properties of organic compounds • All are polar because oxygen or nitrogen exert a strong pull on shared electrons • Polarity tends to make these molecules hydrophilic (water-loving) • A necessity for life!
Functional groups • Activity 3B – online textbook
Organic Compounds • There are 4 major categories of organic compounds: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids
MAcromolecules • Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids are macromolecules. • This means they are BIG molecules.
Organic Compounds • They are made of smaller molecules that serve as the building blocks. • Like a brick is the building block for a brick wall these smaller molecules combine to create the macromolecules.
Organic Compounds • Smaller Molecules (Building Blocks/subunits) = monomers • Larger Molecules = polymers
Making & Breaking Polymers Condensation Reaction /Dehydration Synthesis Remove water Monomer Polymer Add water Hydrolysis Reaction
Dehydration synthesis Removing water to build a polymer
Hydrolysis Adding water to break down a polymer
Carbohydrates • Why does our body (and all living things) need this molecule? • Provides ENERGY • Where do we get this molecule? • Pasta, Potatoes, Rice, Candy, Soda, Sugar
Carbohydrates Which is the polymer and which is the monomer? Polymer! Monomer!
Carbohydrates • Monomers of carbs = monosaccharide • Mono means 1, saccharide means sugar • Common examples are: • Glucose (grains) • Fructose (fruit) • Galactose (milk)
H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose Figure 3.4B Structures of glucose and fructose
H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose Count up the atoms for each
H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose
H O H H C OH C H OH C C O HO C H C HO H H OH C C H OH H OH C C OH H C H OH C H OH H H Glucose Fructose Isomers – Same molecular formula, different structural formula
CH2OH 6 CH2OH C O 5 H O O H H H H H C C 1 4 OH H OH H OH HO OH OH C C 2 3 H OH H OH Simplified structure Structural formula Abbreviated structure Figure 3.4C Three representations of the ring form of glucose
Carbohydrates • Functional Groups • Functional groups are groups of atoms that give a molecule its characteristic properties. • Carbohydrates have 2 functional groups = • Hydroxyl -OH • Carbonyl -COH
Carbohydrates • Here you see 2 monosaccharides coming together to form a disaccharide. • What type of reaction is this? _______________________________ Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction
Carbohydrates • Polymers = • Dissaccharide (two) • Common examples are: • Sucrose - sugar • Maltose – grains (beer) • Lactose - milk Lactose
Carbohydrates • Polysaccharide (many) • Common examples are: • Starch - potato • Cellulose – plant cell walls • Glycogen - animals
Glucose monomer STARCH Starch granules in potato tuber cells O O O O O O O O O O O Glycogen granules in muscle tissue GLYCOGEN O O O O O O O O O O O O O Cellulose fibrils in a plant cell wall CELLULOSE O O OH O Cellulose molecules O O O O OH O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Figure 3.7 Polysaccharides
Making & Breaking Polymers Remove Water Condensation Reaction / Dehydration Synthesis Monomer Polymer Add Water Hydrolysis Reaction
Lipids • Why does our body (and all living things) need this molecule? • Stores ENERGY • Insulation & Protection • Make up cell membranes (provide boundaries) • Where do we get this molecule? • Dairy products, Meat, Oil
Lipids • Monomers • Glycerol • Fatty Acids • Saturated Fatty Acids • All Single Bonds • Found in animals • Solid at room temperature • Unsaturated Fatty Acids • At least 1 double or triple bond • Found in plants • Liquid at room temperature Animation
Hydrogenated oils • To convert an oil into a solid at room temp. • Add hydrogens • Decreases the number of double bonds
Lipids • Functional Groups = • Hydroxyl • Carboxyl
Lipids • Here you see 2 glycerol combining with a fatty acid in a dehydration reaction. This happens 3 times to create a triglyceride. • animation
Lipids • Polymers = • Are very diverse BUT they are all hydrophobic • Examples; • Triglyceride • Steroids • Wax • Phospholipids
H3C CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 HO Figure 3.9 Cholesterol, a steroid A steroid – cholesterol. A molecule that is needed for cell membrane stability. Excess cholesterol due to consumption of fatty foods can lead to health problems like atherosclerosis (clogging of the arteries)
Anabolic steroids • Synthetic variants of male hormone – testosterone • Anabolism – building of substances by the body • Mimics testosterone which builds muscle tissue Overdosing – leads to serious side effects - depression, liver damage, shrunken testicles, breast development
Drop each food sample onto a paper bag. Hold up to the light, it will turn translucent if lipids are present. • Sudan red is lipid soluble. The sudan red will stain the lipid layer. Solid red.
Proteins • Why does our body (and all living things) need this molecule? • Make up our structure (actin in muscles, hemoglobin and antibodies in blood, etc)