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BBI2421 General Writing Skills Week 3: Compound Sentences Coordinating Conjunctions Run-ons and Comma Splices Three Comma Rules
Compound Sentences A compound sentence is composed of at least two simple sentences joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Formula: Simple Sentence 1 + Comma+ Coordinating Conjunction + Simple Sentence 2 E.g.: • Ammar loves mathematics,but Alya loves English. • The gold disappeared with the goose,so the greedy man got nothing.
Coordinating Conjunctions There are 7 coordinating conjunctions in English: and, but, so, for, nor, yet, or. Just remember… FAN BOYS (For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So)
Coordinating Conjunctions When do you use… for • introduce a reason or cause • has the same meaning as because • e.g.: • It is not easy to get there, foryou have to hike down a long, hot trail. • Some Christians do not work on Sunday,forSunday is their day to worship.
Coordinating Conjunctions When do you use… and • join sentences that are alike • e.g.: • Amni likes nasi lemak, and she likes roti canai too. • It was Rina’s birthday yesterday, and I got her a bracelet.
Coordinating Conjunctions When do you use… nor • join two negative sentences • e.g.: • She didn’t talk, nordid she move. • The book isn’t very long, norit is difficult to read.
Coordinating Conjunctions When do you use… but • join sentences that are opposite or show contrast • e.g.: • Alif is a quiet boy, buthis brother is a talkative one. • They are poor, but they are happy.
Coordinating Conjunctions When do you use… or • join sentences that gives choices or alternatives. • e.g.: • She could choose a big room, or she could choose a small one. • I either get a lot done during the day, or I do nothing at all.
Coordinating Conjunctions When do you use… yet • has the same meaning as but • join sentences that are opposite or show contrast • the second part of the sentence says something unexpected or surprising • e.g.: • He treats her badly, yetshe still loves him. • I was scared, yet I was also curious about the old lady.
Coordinating ConjunctionS When do you use… so • join sentences when the second sentence expresses the result of something. • e.g.: • The student got an F for his BBI2421, so he has to retake the course next semester. • She heard a noise,soshe decided to go back to her room.
Run-ons & Comma Splices(sentence errors) They occur when… sentences are joined incorrectly!
Run-ons & Comma Splices Run-ons: • two simple sentences are joined without… • a comma (,) • a connecting word (fan boys) Eg.: Men like to shop quickly women like to browse. Correction: Men like to shop quickly, but women like to browse. (Join the two sentences with a comma and a coordinating conjunction.) Correction: Men like to shop quickly.Women like to browse. (Make two sentences. Separate the two sentences with a full stop.)
Run-ons & Comma Splices Comma splices: • two simple sentences are joined without… • a comma (,) Eg.: Men like to shop quickly but women like to browse. Correction: Men like to shop quickly, but women like to browse. (Join the two sentences with a comma before the coordinating conjunction.)
Three Comma Rules Rule No. 1 • Put a comma after a time order signal that comes before the subject at the beginning of a sentence. • Exceptions: Then/Soon/Now • E.g.: • Tomorrow, I will be going to Genting Highlands with my family. • At 3.00 a.m., he finally managed to complete his assignment. • Soon we will be celebrating Malaysia Day.
Three Comma Rules Rule No. 2 • Put a comma after the first sentence in a compound sentence. • Put the comma before the coordinating conjunction. • *Don’t use comma between two parts of a simple sentence. • E.g.: • I love inventing new recipes, so I always watch the Asian Food Channel for ideas. • Siddiq completed his studies in late August, and he got a job in early September. • M.Nasir sings and writes songs.
Three Comma Rules Rule No. 3 • Put a comma between the items in a series of three or more items. • *Don’t use a comma between only two items. • E.g.: • Aidil’s favourite local fruits are durian, mangosteen, and rambutan. • I got up, took a shower, drank a cup of coffee, grabbed my books, and ran out of the door. • We paid for the food and left the restaurant.