Introduction A. Review • Timeline B. Historical scope • Exodus covers a period of 431 years C. Setting • Where are we at the end of Genesis? D. The Purpose of Exodus To demonstrate the creator God’s power to keep his word and redeem his people, and to reveal His relentless desire to be in a relationship with His people
Introduction E. Theological Overview of Exodus • God's Redemption of Israel from bondage in Egypt • “exodus” means “a going out” • To redeem Israel • To display His Name before the nations • The covenantwhich YHWH cut with Israel by which He became the King of that nation • The Tabernacle where God’s presence will dwell with His people
Israel in Slavery in Egypt (Exod 1) Exod 1:7 “But the sons of Israel were fruitfuland swarmed greatly, and multiplied, and became exceedingly numerousand filledthe land”(cf. 1:10, 12, 20) Gen 1:28 “Be fruitfuland multiplyand fill the land…” Gen 17:1-5 “I will multiplyyou exceedingly…you shall be a multitudeof nations Gen 22:17 “I will greatly multiplyyour descendents…” How would you describe the problem theologically? Pharaoh and Egypt are trying to stop God from fulfilling his promise to make Abraham/Israel a mighty nation!
Moses called as the Deliverer (Exod 2-4) • Overview • Significance of the name Yahweh? • verb “to be” • 1) “he who causes to be (i.e. he creates), or 2) he who is (exists; cf. 3:14) • Yahweh is the “self-existent one;” his own category The general point of the revelation of Yahweh to Moses is to assure Moses that the presence of YHWH will be with him. • “I will be with your mouth” (4:12) • “pillar of fire” and “cloud of glory” (Exod 13:21) • Tabernacle (Exod 25-31; 35-40) • Glory of God (Exod 40)
Pharaoh, Moses, and the Ten Plagues (Exod 5-12) • Theological point: • God is battling—and defeating!—the gods of Egypt • Exod 12:12 • Numb 33:4 • Some plagues correspond to various Egyptian gods: • Important to note: the plagues are more than just God’s judgment on Egypt; they are God’s dramatic means of revealing his character and power to the nations: • Key phrase: “That they/you may know that I am the LORD” (Yahweh) (6:7; 7:5, 17; 8:22; 10:2; 14:4, 18).
Pharaoh, Moses, and the Ten Plagues (Exod 5-12) • Theological point: • The hardening of Pharaoh’s heart • (in notes) • Two things to affirm: • God didn’t turn a nice Pharaoh into a mean Pharaoh; rather, he took a mean Pharaoh and ensured that he would remain that way. • God chose not to soften Pharaoh’s heart because bigger things were at stake: The disclosure of God’s name among the nations (Rom 9)
Passover and the Crossing of the Sea of Reeds (13-14) • Passover • Crossing the “Sea of Reeds” • The crossing of the Red Sea (or, “sea of reeds”) is the apex of God’s deliverance of his people. • The exodus as a whole, and the crossing of the Sea at its apex, becomes THE foundational event vindicating God’s power to save his people. • The paradigm of the exodus is picked up by Isaiah in 40-55 and is used to speak of a future “2nd Exodus;” a future time when YHWH will once again redeem his people from the hand of a foreign power.
Passover and the Crossing of the Sea of Reeds (13-14) • Passover • Crossing the “Sea of Reeds” • NT: the “2nd Exodus,” or the future redemption is accomplished through Jesus’ death and resurrection. Mark 1:2-3 quotes Isa 40, a “second exodus” text Luke 9:31 “who appeared in glory and spoke of his departure (= exodus), which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem.” e. The exodus is a paradigm of sovereigntyand grace!
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS 4 Issues: • The Historicity of the Exodus • Date of the Exodus • The Number of Israelites • Route of the Exodus
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS 1. The Historicity of the Exodus: 2 million Israelites leave a major world empire…? • Nations recorded victories , not defeats • The Bible
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS • The Date of the Exodus • 1446 B.C. • 1275(ish) B.C. • Arguments for early date • 1 Kings 6:1 says that Solomon built the temple in the 4th year of his reign (966 B.C.), “480 years after the sons of Israel came out of the land of Egypt” • Judges 11:26 says that Jephthah’s day (1100 B.C.) was about 300 years after the exodus • 1 Kings 6:1 AND Judges 11:26 BOTH place the exodus around 1400 B.C.
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS 2. The Date of the Exodus Meet Pharaoh Ramses II
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS 2. The date of the exodus • Problems with an early date? • Archeological record • Dating of Jericho • “the land of Rameses” (Gen 47:11; Exod 1:11)
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS 3. The Number of Israelites • (Statistics in notes) • 2 million…really? • Problem: No historical or archaeological evidence supports this number
EXCURSUS: HISTORICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EXODUS 4. The Route of the Exodus
3. The Beginnings of the wilderness wanderings (Exod 15-18) • Theological point: These events here foreshadow Israel’s dark history and God’s persistent grace. Israel grumbles, God provides, Israel continues to grumble, God continues to provide.
II. COVENANT: A National Covenant Given at Mt Sinai (19-34) 1. The Narrative Stops! • The narrative virtually stops at Exod 19, at the base of Sinai (but cf. 32-34). They don’t pick up camp and move until Numb 10:11. They will have been at the base of Sinai for 11 months.
II. COVENANT: A National Covenant Given at Mt Sinai (19-34) 2. The Mosaic Covenant (Exod 19:5-6; 20-24) i. It isCONDITIONAL • Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants • Exod 19:5-6 ii. It is ETHNOCENTRIC
II. COVENANT: A National Covenant Given at Mt Sinai (19-34) • The Ten Commandments (Exod 20:1-21) • Case Law and the Book of the Covenant (Exod 20:22-23:19) • Christians, Old Covenant, and the Law • It is no longer a FUNCTIONAL covenant • The OT LAW, as part of the Mosaic covenant, is no longer authoritative in the same way for NT believers
B. The Law Broken by the People, the Golden Calf, the Broken Tablets (32-34)1. Shows the utter propensity of the human heart toward sin and idolatry2. Shows the persistent desire of the Creator God to be with his peoplenote the literary placement!
III. The Tabernacle A. Construction of the Tabernacle Virtual tour
III. The Tabernacle B. Theology of the Tabernacle • Theologically, the tabernacle enabled God, who is holy, to dwell with man, who is sinful. • The importance of the tabernacle cannot be underestimated: it allowed God to dwell with man. • Royal Tent • Holy Tent • Tent of Meeting • Tabernacle and the NT • Jesus and the temple/tabernacle (John 1:14; 2:21) • Jesus’ death (Matt 27:51; Rom 3:25) • The temple/tabernacle and the church (1 Cor 6:19; cf. 3:16-17; 2 Cor 6:16)