Biology Partnership (A Teacher Quality Grant) Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration February 22, 2014 Nancy Dow Jill Hansen Tammy Stundon
Pre-test Q and A board How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar? How do plants and animals get their energy? What makes ATP so special?
Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards SC.912.L.18.9 Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. SC.912.L.18.7 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis. SC.912.L.18.8 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. SC.912.L.18.10 Connect the role of (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell
Item Specs Benchmark Clarifications Students will explain how the products of photosynthesis are used as reactants for cellular respiration and vice versa. Students will explain how photosynthesis stores energy in organic compounds and cellular respiration releases energy from organic compounds Students will identify the reactants, products and/or the basic function of photosynthesis. Students will identify the reactants, products and/or the basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. Students will connect the roles of ATP to energy transfers within the cells Content Limits Items will not require the memorization of the stages, specific events, or intermediate molecules produced during these processes. Items will not require the balancing of equations. Items will not assess plant structures. Stimulus Attributes Scenarios may include chemical equations.
Photosynthesis – Who Does It? • Autotrophs • plants • protists* • bacteria* • Heterotrophs (consumer) • get their energy from “eating others” • consumers of other organisms • consume organic molecules • Autotrophs • get their energy from “self” • get their energy from sunlight • use light energy to synthesize organic molecules • Song
Photosynthesis Foldable We’ll add the cellular respiration later…
Photosynthesis – Where Does it Happen? Obtaining raw materials: Sunlight: leaves (solar collectors) CO2:stoma = gas exchange H2O: uptake from roots Nutrients: uptake from roots
Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to make sugar and oxygen gas from carbon dioxide and water An Overview of Photosynthesis Carbondioxide Water Glucose Oxygengas PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The Process of Photosynthesis Two Primary Reactions Photosynthesis: Let's Get Into This
Two Parts of Photosynthesis 1.Light Reaction or Light Dependent Reaction Produces energy from solar power (photons) in the form of ATP and NADPH(e- carriers) Uses solar energy to ‘charge’ up for 2nd reaction Photosynthesis (TMBG)
2. Light Independent Reaction (aka the Dark Rxn or the Calvin Cycle) Also called Carbon Fixation or C3 Fixation Uses energy (ATP and NADPH) from light reaction to make sugar (glucose). Two Parts of Photosynthesis Takes the energy created in the light reactions to make sugar
The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy Produce ATP & NADPH An Overview of Photosynthesis Light Chloroplast NADP ADP + P Calvin cycle The light ind. makes sugar from carbon dioxide • ATP generated by the light reactions provides the energy for sugar synthesis • The NADPH produced by the light reactions provides the electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to glucose Light reactions
Photosynthesis Equation Reduction of carbon dioxide into carbohydrate via the oxidation of energy carriers (ATP, NADPH) Light reactions energize the carriers “Dark” reactions (Calvin Cycle) produce PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) or G3P – all versions of sugar Photosynthesis6CO2 +6H20 + light C6H1206 + 6O2
When light strikes a leaf… It can be Absorbed Reflected or bounced back Transmitted or passed through Plants are green because they absorb light wavelengths in red & blue and reflect green back out
10 minutes!! Don’t be late!
How Does Photosynthesis Relate to Cellular Repiration? + water + energy glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy C6H12O6 6O2 6CO2 6H2O + + + ATP dioxide light energy 6CO2 6H2O 6O2 + + + C6H12O6 Heterotrophs making energy & organic molecules from ingesting organic molecules Autotrophs making energy & organic molecules from light energy
How Does Photosynthesis Relate to Cellular Repiration? Cutest Angry Little Seed Rap
How Does Photosynthesis Relate to Cellular Respiration? At the base of every food chain If you think about it….ALL LIFE starts with the sun
Aerobic Cellular Respiration ACR Rap C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Respiration Two Types of Respiration 1. Cellular Respiration – (aerobic) -requires O2 and sugar is completely broken down into CO2 ATP, and H2O 2. Fermentation – (anaerobic) -No O2 is present and sugar is broken down into lactic acid
Aerobic Cellular Respiration To produce ATP - 3 main reactions Glycolysis - occurs in cytoplasm Starts with sugar (glucose) C6H12O6 Enzyme reacts with the sugar breaking it down into pyruvate (taken to next step) 2 ATP molecules produced
Aerobic Cellular Respiration To produce ATP - 3 main reactions II. Krebs Cycle - occurs in mitochondria Starts with pyruvate (which has been modified)* Enzymes break it down through a cycle – repeats twice (2 molecules produced in glycolysis) Carbon ‘spun off’ as a by product (as CO2) Lots of H+ ions produced (charged) 2 ATP molecules produced *Technically – Step 1.5 is the transition reaction!
Aerobic Cellular Respiration To produce ATP - 3 main reactions III. Electron Transport Chain - in the mitochondria The hydrogen from the first 2 reactions is brought here by electron carriers (NAD and FADs) A gradient is created by the proteins in the membrane which drives the pump (ATP synthase) Oxygen (final electron acceptor) bonds with H+ to form water 32 ATP produced!
Energy lost in the form of HEAT LIGHT energy from the sun CHEMICAL energy stored in plants Recall the First Law of Thermodynamics!!
Food is a form of CHEMICAL energy! Glucose C6H12O6 CHEMICAL ENERGY A form of potential energy stored in chemical bonds ENERGY
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) AND ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE (ADP) Separate phosphate group Adenine Adenine Pi Phosphate groups Phosphate groups High-energy bonds Ribose (sugar) Ribose (sugar) ENERGY Symbol for ADP used in this book Symbol for ATP used in this book ADP ATP The green halo represents ATP’s potential energy.
ATP can be used and recycled hundreds of thousands of times! ATP ENERGY ENERGY Energy released from the breakdown of food Energy to do work ADP Pi
Fermentation Both occur when oxygen is not available Why we ‘feel the burn’ when exerting our muscles
Photosynthesis in Animals? Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration in Organisms
Virtual Lab On Pigments Leaf Disc Assay (Step by Step with pics) Virtual Respiration Lab Illuminating Photosynthesis Photosynthesis vs Chemosynthesis Hand-drawn (detailed) Respiration Marathon Mouse Lab Simple LimeWater Lab
Follow up • Q & A • Post Test