OGT Social Studies PrepSession 5 • Cold War Era • Post-Cold War Era
The Cold WarIt’s Important Points • After WWII, the United States played a vital role in establishing the United Nations, but found itself in a Cold War with the Soviet Union & communism. • The Cold War as caused by several conflicting political and economic ideologies, which resulted in Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe, the division of Germany, the creation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and the Communist Revolution in China.
The Cold WarIt’s Important Points • The United States fought the Cold War with the Truman Doctrine, containment, and the Marshall Plan – which helped rebuild war torn Allies after WWII. • Former colonies experienced a rise in dictatorships. • The Korean War & Vietnam Wars were attempts by the United States to contain communism. • After the postwar (post-WWII) prosperity of the 1950s, changes prompted by social protest and civil rights movements altered American life in the 1960s and 1970s.
The Cold WarIt’s Important Points • The causes and consequences of the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War include • The arms race (build up), • Ethnic unrest, • Independence movements in former Soviet Union satellite nations, & • Global decline of Communism.
The Cold War – Summary of What it Was The tense face-off between the United States and the Soviet Union (and their respective allies) was known as the Cold War. It was unusual for 2 main reasons: it lasted for 40 years and Americans & Soviets never fired shots at each other. It was a contest between democracy and dictatorship. The Soviets hoped to dominate the world by converting governments to communism, a dictatorial political and economic system that denied freedom and opportunity to its citizens. The US committed to a policy of containment (stopping the spread of communism) and promoting the growth of democracy in other nations around the world.
Note about C/communism • It can be confusing to see the word communism sometimes appear CAPITALIZED and sometimes uncapitalized. • Lower-cased communism is the theory that the people will be more equal if all property is shared. • Upper-cased Communism is a dictatorial political & economic system that denies freedom to its citizens.
Churchill & The Iron Curtain(Background info) • WWII left many European colonial powers in ruins. Even Britain and France, which had been on the winning side, had suffered physical and economic damage. These countries quickly realized that holding onto their colonies would be a difficult task while rebuilding at home and dealing with the threat of the Soviet Union.
Churchill & The Iron Curtain(Background info) • After WWII, the Soviets took back Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The Soviet Union refused to remove its troops from portions of Eastern Europe that it had captured from the Germans. It took control of the governments of East Germany, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Governments sympathetic to the Communist system ruled Yugoslavia and Albania.
Churchill & The Iron Curtain • By 1946, Soviet Control of Eastern Europe was strong enough to cause former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to say: • “[A]n iron curtain has descended across the [European] continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere…” • This speech marks the beginning of the Cold War.
US Policy of Containment –The Truman Doctrine • Began when President Truman announced the Truman Doctrine in March 1947. • TD stated the US would help freedom-based nations that were resisting Soviet domination. • First applied in Greece (civil war) and Turkey • US gave economic aid • Greek government defeated communists • Turks resisted Soviet pressure
US Policy of Containment –The Marshall Plan • Gave billions of dollars to European countries to repair factories & mines. • Proposed by Sec of State – George Marshall • Way US hoped to promote democracy • Nations receiving aid were required to spend some of it with American companies
Arms Race • Us was the only country in the world with nuclear weapons UNTIL 1949! • Soviets developed their own atomic bomb. • Two nations (US & USSR) began building large stockpiles of nuclear weapons. • Meant growing danger for the whole world
Cold War Military Alliances NATO (1949) (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Belgium Luxembourg Britain Netherlands Canada Norway Denmark Portugal France Turkey Greece United States Iceland West Germany Italy WARSAW PACT (1955) Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union (USSR)
Spread of Communism in Asia The Cold War soon spread from Europe to Asia. When China came under Communist control in 1949, many Americans began talking of an international Communist conspiracy -- pitting the combined muscle of China and the Soviets against the United States. In such an atmosphere, almost any conflict anywhere in the world threatened to turn the Cold War into a hot one.
HOT SPOT - Berlin • After WWII, Germany was broken into 2 countries. • East Germany was dominated by Soviets. • West Germany was supported by Western Europe & the US. • Berlin was divided into 4 zones (1 Great Britain, 1 France, 1 US, 1 USSR) but was located inside EAST Germany. • 1948 – Berlin Blockade - Soviets closed off Berlin • Berlin Airlift – Fr, GB, US airlifted supplies – Almost a year. • Soviets realized that the blockade wasn’t going to work, so they lifted the blockade.
Hot Spot - Berlin • 1949-1961 – Many East Germans fled their country through Berlin. • 1961 – Berlin Wall was built – First wall built to keep citizens IN rather than enemies out. • The Berlin Wall was up until the fall of 1989. • Torn down as communism fell in Eastern Europe • Reagan’s Speech: “Mr. Gorbachev – Tear down this wall!”
HOT WAR – Korean War • 1950 (Summer) – North Korean (Communist) troops invaded South Korean (Democratic) • US (and UN forces) aided South Korea; China aided North Korea • Fought for 3 years (1950-53); Never a peace treaty. • Ending boundaries of countries very close to what they were at the beginning – Drawn near the 38th parallel. • Demilitarized Zone on each side of the border • International tension with North Korea over its nuclear weapons program continues to present danger.
In the US – Another Red Scare – McCarthyism in the Early 1950s • Americans were worried about Soviet spies being in the country. • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – Investigated disloyalty in the government, schools (universities), and Hollywood. • 1950 – Joseph McCarthy – Rep. Senator from WI – claimed he had a list of 205 communists who worked for the State Department. • Provoked huge sensation- “witch” hunts for communists began all over America. • McCarthy never produced any evidence to support his claims.
In the US – Another Red Scare – McCarthyism in the Early 1950s • McCarthy kept making accusations for 4 years! • He claimed the was working to protect national security. • Many Americans’ careers were ruined as a result of McCarthy’s charges. • 1954 - US Senate finally condemned McCarthy for “contemptuous” conduct (conduct unbecoming a member of Congress) and censured him. • McCarthy lost popularity and McCarthyism died out. • Not long after that, McCarthy died.
Hot Spot - Vietnam • France wanted to keep Indochina (Present day Vietnam, Cambodia, & Laos). • USSR backed Communist independence movement leader Ho Chi Minh. • France divided region into Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (to appease the Communists) • French forces still occupied the area, but each state had its own government. • 1954 - Communist rebels defeated French forces; French left all together soon after.
Hot Spot - Vietnam • After the French left, Vietnam was divided in two. • US began helping newly formed democratic South Vietnam in its struggle against Communist North Vietnam. • Result of containment policy • At first, the US was just sending money and military advisors, giving military advice, to the South Vietnamese. • US did not want communism to spread any further. • Afraid of domino effect. • If one nation falls to communism, the one next to it will fall and so on.
HOT Spot - Cuba • 1959 – Fidel Castro led revolution in Cuba that turned it into a Communist dictatorship. • 1961 – US tried to overthrow Castro – Bay of Pigs Invasion – Failed, miserably • 1962 – Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles from the tip of Florida. • Resulted in an extremely tense stand-off between the US and the USSR – AKA: Cuban Missile Crisis • Both realized that if one were to strike the other, it could escalate into WWIII. • Compromise drawn: • USSR would remove missiles and base from Cuba. • US would stay out of Cuban affairs. • Many Cubans have fled Cuba for the US. • Cuba is one of the few Communist states still in existence.
HOT WAR - Vietnam • 1964 – North Vietnamese attacked American ships off the coast of NV • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Allowed President Lyndon Johnson to take stronger military action. • Johnson sent in the first combat troops. • This marks the beginning of direct US involvement (TROOPS) in Vietnam.
HOT WAR - Vietnam • 1965-1973 – More than 8 million Americans served in the military during the Vietnam War. • Draft was instituted • People tried to dodge the draft by leaving the country. • As a whole, it affected the poor the worst, including many minority groups in US. • If you were in college, you could get out of going to war, but most poor people could not afford college and, thus, were eligible for the draft.
HOT WAR - Vietnam • The VW was the first to be seen on TV and viewed by the American public. • Split the country between “Hawks” (those who supported US involvement in the war) and “Doves” (those who were against US involvement in the war). • “Doves” were a HUGE part of the counterculture movement in the US. • Seemed to be a war that the US could not win. • Vietcong (South Vietnamese fighters, guerillas who supported NORT Vietnam) looked like everyday South Vietnamese citizens – Hard to recognize the enemy. • Vietnam was like a jungle; Different fighting tactics were needed and used – Guerilla warfare & booby traps.
HOT WAR - Vietnam • January 1968 – Tet Offensive – Surprise attacks launched on South Vietnam cities by Vietcong. • Tet = Vietnamese New Year’s holiday. • Vietcong managed to infiltrate all the way down to Saigon (which is WAY south in South Vietnam) • In the end, US and SV forces pushed the enemy back, BUT the Vietcong had own a MAJOR political victory • Tet Offensive showed that even with a half a million US troops, no part of SV was safe from Vietcong attacks. • Turning point in war; More Americans started to protest it. • Johnson did NOT seek reelection in 1968.
HOT WAR - Vietnam • When Nixon came into office, he widened the war effort (at first), hoping to weaken the enemy. • NV had used trails in Cambodia to send supplies to their soldiers and Vietcong in SV. • 1969 – Nixon ordered bombing on communist bases in Cambodia, then US & SV troops invaded by land. • Plunged Cambodia into civil war • In 1975 – Khmer Rouge won civil war • 1979 – Vietnam invaded Cambodia; Set up new communist gov’t. • Nixon under pressure at home – began to turn war over to SV and withdraw US troops. • Peace talks in Paris • In January 1973 – Cease fire agreement reached • 1974 – Last of US Troops left. • Result (by April 1975)– NV & SV became one, Communist, Vietnam
Space Race • 1957 – Soviets launch Sputnik I into space – 1st satellite • 1961 – USSR sent first human into space to circle the Earth • US formed NASA and began their own space program to keep up with (or surpass) the Soviets • Congress approved funds for NASA • US strove to become the leader in space travel • July 20, 1969 – Neil Armstrong – 1st human to walk on the moon
Cold War – Winds Down • US had refused to recognize Mao Zedong’s communist government in China (since 1949) • US recognized the Chinese Nationalists – now on island Taiwan. • US gave arms and aid to the Nationalists & supported their claim to being the legitimate government in China. • 1972 – Nixon visited mainland China • 1979 – US and China finally established diplomatic relations (tension had eased to allow this)
Cold War – Détente • Détente – Lessening of tensions (specifically between the superpowers – US & USSR) • May 1972 – Nixon visits the USSR (1st President to do so since start of Cold War) – Détente in play • Détente led superpowers to sign SALT Agreement – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Cold War – Détente Challenged • 1979 – Soviets invaded Afghanistan – sent there to set up a pro-Soviet government that had just seized power. • US condemned the invasion • President Carter withdrew SALT II Treaty from Senate approval hearings and the US boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. • Eventually, Soviets couldn’t afford to stay in Afghanistan and withdrew troops in 1989.
Cold War (Spend that money! See who wins this thing!) • In 1970s – US started cutting back military budget • Some believed we needed less weapons due to détente • Others believed US was still at risk – spending should continue • Ronald Reagan (1981) – Pushed for higher levels of military spending. • Caused USSR to spend more money (Arms Race continued) • 1987 – US & USSR signed Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty – limit medium-range nuclear arms.
Cold War (Spend that money! See who wins this thing!) • Reagan’s tough stand against Communism and the Soviets – spending extraordinary amounts of money on defense – led the Soviets into so much debt that they couldn’t provide for Soviet citizens. • People within the Soviet Union started to revolt. • Mikhail Gorbachev (came to power in 1985) – Glasnost policy – allowed people to talk openly without attack by the government.
Soviet Union Breaks Apart USSR broke apart in 1991 • Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) formed • 15 New Republics formed: Germany (unified), Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Macedonia • US emerged as the leading nation of power in the world. • Has led to struggles – Should US use power to help others gain independence? US became a target to “take down” by nationalist groups (like al-Qaeda)
Also During the Cold War Throughout the World • Independence Movements were happening all around the world – primarily on the Asian & African continent. • US & USSR would try to ally with those newly forming countries. • Some accepted the help of one or the other, allying with one or the other. • Some accepted help from both, but would not ally with either. • This allowed the US & USSR to increase their pull & influence worldwide.
During the Cold War in US • Civil Rights Movement • 1954 – Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court decision ends segregation in schools. (Over-turns Plessy v. Ferguson) • 1955 – Montgomery, AL bus boycott begins • 1957 – President Eisenhower sends in National Guard soldiers to Little Rock, Arkansas to help 9 black students enroll in a white school. • 1961 – “Freedom Rides” and other peaceful protests happen throughout the South. • 1964 – Civil Rights Act is passed; MLK, Jr wins Nobel Peace Prize • 1968 – MLK, Jr is assassinated in Memphis, TN.
During the Cold War in US • While in the early 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement focused on voting rights, winning economic rights became the focus in the late 1960s. • Women’s Rights Movement – 1960s & 70s • Betty Friedan – Feminine Mystique – Described how society pressured women to remain in the home and reject a career. • Women’s Liberation Movement • Women examined personal lives • Led to a movement for social and political change in workplace, education, and in politics. • Argued for rights like equal pay for equal work, less governmental interference in private lives, and fairness of women seeking political office or high achievement in academics.
During the Cold War in US • Counterculture Movement • Children of postwar “Baby Boom” – young adults • Followers pushed for equal rights for African-Americans, women and other minorities. • Followers were against the Vietnam War (Doves) • 450,000 young people from all over US went to Woodstock Music & Art Fair (1969) • Peace, Love, & Rock-n-Roll – Hippies & Flower Children. • Counterculture politics tended to be very liberal – Libertarian – hardly any rules.
Post-Cold War EraIt’s Important Points • Conflict in the Middle East has continued despite international peacemaking efforts. • Europe, Asia, and Africa have all experienced ethnic strife.
Israel & Palestinians • Background Info • 1948 – Israel’s declares independence; Recognized by US • 1967 – Six Day War – Israel tried to break an Egyptian blockade of an important water route; Result: Tripled Israel’s territory • Captured Gaza Strip and the West Bank AND Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. • Placed 1 million Palestinian Arabs under Israeli control
Israel & Palestinians • Background Info (Continued) • October 1973 – Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt & Syria – settled after about 3 weeks by UN – cease-fire agreement before either side had won a clear victory. • 1979 – Camp David Accords – President Carter invited leaders of Israel & Egypt to Camp David (Presidential retreat location in Maryland) • March 1979 – Peace treaty signed; ended 30 year state of war between Egypt & Israel; US agreed to provide economic & military assistance to both; US pledged to help negotiate an end to the dispute between the Israelis and the Palestinians; This peace treaty angered other Arab states (They lost Egypt as an ally against Israel)
Israel & Palestinians • Dayton Accords – Peace talks between Israelis and other Arabs/Palestinians • Throughout the 1990s • Led to Israel’s withdraw from the Gaza Strip and removal of some troops from the West Bank. • Suicide bombings by Islamic militants AND Israeli occupation and retaliation continue to terrorize the people who live there.
Israel & Palestinians • 2002 – US , the European Union, Russia, and United Nations jointly propose the “road map for peace”. • Goal: Independent Palestinian state • 2005 – Israel removed troops and a number of Israeli settlers from the Gaza Strip permanently.
Persian Gulf War • 1990 – Iraq invaded Kuwait • President George H. W. Bush (Senior) sent US military forces to Persian Gulf • Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein ignored warnings to back down and leave Kuwait. • January 1991 – US began airstrikes against strategic targets in Kuwait • US forces drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait • Persian Gulf war came to an end
9/11 and After • September 11, 2001 – al-Qaeda attacks Twin Towers in NYC. • “War on Terror” (George W. Bush – Junior) begins • Any nation harboring or supporting terrorists will be regarded by US as hostile
9/11 and After • 1998 – Kosovo (province in Yugoslavia) – most people are Albanian – sought independence from Yugoslavia or a union with Albania • Intervention by UN stopped fighting • Bosnia continues to be ethnically divided • February 2003 – Serbia & Montenegro (remaining Yugoslav republics) voted to dissolve Yugoslavia and form a loose union called Serbia and Montenegro.
Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide(Some examples, but not all shown) • 1992 – Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina (with help of Serb-dominated Yugoslav government) began expelling/killing Muslims in attempt to keep Bosnia from becoming independent. • Conflict in Rwanda – Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups • Tutsi only 9% of population • 1993 – Major-General Juvenal Habyarimana (Rwanda President) and Hutu signed an agreement that would protect human rights of the Tutsi and attempt to solve refugee problem. • His plane was shot down (April 1994) – Mass murder of Tutsi began (Nearly 800,000 murdered)
Globalization & Interdependence • Internet has connected the world • Trade became interdependent • Issues of trade have made nations (like the US) get involved in others’ affairs to protect their own countries’ interests.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (Affirmative Action Challenged) • 1973 & 1974 Allan Bakke repeatedly applied for admission to medical school and was rejected. • School had a separate program for minorities with a lower acceptance score. • Not all of the minority spots were filled • Bakke still denied acceptance. • Bakke sued – claimed he had been rejected based on his race and that the rejection violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment • University sued Bakke – wanted the court to say that its affirmative-action program was legal.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (Affirmative Action Challenged) • Trial court ruled that race could not be used in admissions decisions; did not grant Bakke admission. • California Supreme Court ruled that the university could not use race against Bakke and that it must admit Bakke. • US Supreme Court ruling (1976) – 2 part ruling • Upheld CASC ruling – Bakke’s rights had been violated • Overturned CASC part about race not being apart of admissions – USSC said it could be used as PART of the plan to make the student body more diverse.