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Fisheries. Traditional food production and distribution practices are unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people Will resources in the sea be able to provide enough food to alleviate future problems of malnutrition and starvation ?. Most valuable living marine resources:

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Fisheries


Fisheries

  • Most valuable living marine resources: unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Demersal fish (bottom dwellers)

  • Pelagic fish (free-swimming mid/upper dwellers)

  • Crustaceans

  • Mollusks

  • Marine mammals


Fisheries

Location of the world’s major commercial fisheries unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

coastal areas

upwelling


Fisheries

Food & Non-Food Products unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

from the Sea


Fisheries

  • Non-Food Products from the Sea unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

    • Bioactive Compounds (drugs and insecticides)

    • Algin & Agar: products from seaweed use for promoting gel formation

    • Whales: Oil for lubrication, in cosmetics, bones for fertilizer

    • Seals and sea lions: furs


Fisheries

  • Food from the Sea unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Seaweeds

  • Invertebrates (e.g., oysters, clams, crabs, lobster, squid, etc.)

  • Fish (herring, mackerel, haddock, cod, tuna, mahi-mahi, etc.)

  • Whales – international moratorium imposed in 1987; no commercial whaling permitted since with limited exceptions


Fisheries

Case Study: Peru Anchovy Fishery unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Upwelling zone off Peru

  • Fishery began 1950

  • Greatest fish catches for any single species

  • Fish exported for domestic animal feed

  • Fishery collapsed due to El Niño and overfishing and has NEVER recovered


Fisheries

Peru Anchovy Fishery unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

= El Niño

1957

1965

1972

1976

1982-83


Fisheries

Peru Anchovy Fishery unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people


Fisheries

Peru Anchovy Fishery unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

Normal Year

El Niño Year


Fisheries

Case Study: Collapse of New England Fisheries unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Cod, haddock, ocean perch, herring, mackerel, blue fin tuna

  • George’s Bank- highly productive, nutrient rich environment

  • Prior to 1976, Russia, Japan, Norway, & West Germany fished in Georges Bank


Fisheries

Collapse of New England Fisheries unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Magnuson-Stevens Act of 1976 prevented foreigners from fishing in U.S. waters

  • Fishery technology intensified and resulted in overfishing – yields well beyond sustainable levels

  • Georges Bank closed indefinitely after collapse in ~1994

  • Some fish stocks have begun to rebound


Fisheries

Fisheries Management Council unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

The revised Magnuson Act in 2007 created 8 regional fisheries management councils.

Overfished stocks as of 2010


Fisheries

  • Fisheries Management Plans unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Congress directed the Councils to create Fisheries Management Plans or “FMPs” for each species

  • Primarily concerned with balancing growth of stocks with commercial needs

  • Established annual catch limits or acceptable biological catch

  • Attempted to end overfishing and help stocks recover

  • Major critics say that the fisheries are still about to crash and that the Councils are mismanaged and ineffective

  • Heavily revised in 2010 to be community-based initiatives and saw increased prices with less but more responsible catches as a result in experimental areas


Fisheries

Fishing Techniques unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people


Fisheries

  • Fishing Methods unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Longline – baited hooks (100’s to many thousands) along a long line; used for swordfish, tuna (pelagic); cod, halibut (bottom)

  • Trolling – many lines with single hooks slowly dragged through the water; use for salmon, albacore, mahi-mahi


Fisheries

  • Fishing Methods unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Drift (gill) netting – vertical nets hung in the water to trap passing fish

    • highly controversial!

    • banned by UN, US limits length to ~1.7 miles

    • used to catch various pelagic fish


Fisheries

Drift Net unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

net size:

20 m x 65 km


Fisheries

  • Fishing Methods unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Trawl – large “pouch” dragged through water/across bottom; used for anchovies (pelagic); cod, halibut (bottom)

  • Purse seine – net is wrapped around a school of surfacing or near surfacing fish; used for sardines, herring, mackerel, tends to accidentally snare any predators like dolphins


Fisheries

Trawl unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

bottom

midwater


Fisheries

Before trawl unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

After trawl


Fisheries

  • Fishing Methods unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Traps and Pots - Crabs, lobster, rock fish

  • Main problem with most methods is “bycatch” – nontarget species caught and usually killed


Fisheries

Laws of the Sea Treaty unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

Allow nations to claim jurisdiction over their territorial seas (contiguous sea beds and their waters that extend off shore by 12 nautical miles)

  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

  • 200 nautical miles (230 land miles)

  • under direct control of the country that owns the nearest land

  • Regulates continental shelf resources:

  • Fishing

  • Mineral exploration

  • Scientific research


Fisheries

Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people


Fisheries

Mariculture unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people


Fisheries

Mariculture or Aquaculture unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

(marine agriculture)- farming finfish, shellfish and algae under favorable conditions

Big Island, Kona, Tilapia


Fisheries

  • Aquaculture also produces: unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Bait fish

  • Ornamental or aquarium fish

  • Aquatic animals used to augment natural populations

  • Algae for chemical extraction

  • Pearl oysters


Fisheries

Criteria for selecting species for farming: unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

- inexpensive to grow

- grows quickly

- high sales price

- resistant to disease and parasites

barramundi

catfish

tilapia


Fisheries

  • Problems associated with Mariculture: unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people

  • Won’t make a dent in the shortfall in food supply

  • Fish food- fish meal

  • Pollution

  • Escapees

  • High stress overcrowding pens

  • High concentration of pathogens/parasites


Fisheries

Overcrowded Pens unable to feed the world’s 7+ billion people