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Lesson 9: The Government of Palestine (cont.). From Wayne Jackson’s book. The Roman Caesars. Augustus (31 B.C. – 14 A.D.) Tiberius (14-37 A.D.) Caligula (37-41 A.D.) Claudius (41-54 A.D.) Nero (54-68 A.D.) Galba, Otho & Vitellius (68-69 A.D.) Vespasian (69-79 A.D.)

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Lesson 9 the government of palestine cont

Lesson 9:

The Government of Palestine (cont.)

From Wayne Jackson’s book

The roman caesars
The Roman Caesars

  • Augustus (31 B.C. – 14 A.D.)

  • Tiberius (14-37 A.D.)

  • Caligula (37-41 A.D.)

  • Claudius (41-54 A.D.)

  • Nero (54-68 A.D.)

  • Galba, Otho & Vitellius (68-69 A.D.)

  • Vespasian (69-79 A.D.)

  • Titus (79-81 A.D.)

  • Domitian (81-96 A.D.)

The roman jewish connection
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.)

    • Ruled over Idumea, Samaria, Galilee and Judah

    • Slaughtered the infants trying to murder baby Jesus

    • Herod had four key sons:

      • Archelaus—tetrarch of Judea (including Samaria & Idumea)

      • Antipas—tetrarch of Galilee & Perea

      • Philip—tetrarch of Trachonitus & adjacent regions

      • Aristobulus was a 4th son, but he did not receive any land

        • He is important because he was the father of Herod Agrippa I

The roman jewish connection1
The Roman/JewishConnection

Slaughtered infants

The roman jewish connection2
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Archelaus (4 B.C. – 6 A.D.)

    • Reigned over Judea, Samaria & Idumea

    • His administration was cruel & inept

      • After being removed from office, his territory was subsequently made subject to procurators (6-41 A.D.)—one of whom was Pontius Pilate

    • Archelaus is mentioned only in Matthew 2:22

      • After their return from Egypt, Joseph and Mary, due to their fear of this ruler, together with the angelic warning, settled in Galilee.

The roman jewish connection3
The Roman/JewishConnection

Slaughtered infants

Joseph & Mary feared

The roman jewish connection4
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Herod Antipas (4 B.C. – 39 A.D.)

    • Tetrarch of Galilee, built capital Tiberias on Sea of Galilee

    • Married his niece, Herodias, who deserted her husband

      • Condemned by John the Baptist (Matt. 14:4-12)

    • When Antipas heard rumors that Jesus was John “risen from the dead,” he sought to see the Lord (Luke 9:7-9)

    • Christ once called him a “fox” (Luke 13:31-32)

    • Christ warned of his evil influence (Mark 8:15)

    • During His trial before Pilate, Jesus was sent to Herod, who was in Jerusalem at the time (Luke 23:7-15)

The roman jewish connection5
The Roman/JewishConnection

Slaughtered infants

Joseph & Mary feared

Beheaded John &

tried Jesus

The roman jewish connection6
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Herod Philip (4 B.C. – 34 A.D.)

    • Philip (not the former husband of Herodias) is mentioned only in Luke 3:1

    • He ruled in NE Palestine until his death in 34 A.D.

    • He rebuilt the city of Caesarea-Philippi at the base of Mt. Hermon, and Bethsaida-Julias on the Sea of Galilee

    • He was the best of the Herods and it was into his territory that Jesus went when Pharisaic hatred became so intense

The roman jewish connection7
The Roman/JewishConnection

Slaughtered infants

Joseph & Mary feared

Beheaded John &

tried Jesus

Luke 3:1

North of Galilee

The roman jewish connection8
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Agrippa I (37-44 A.D.)

    • Grandson of Herod the Great (and son of Aristobulus)

    • In 37 A.D., he received territories previously held by his uncle, Philip the tetrarch (cf. Luke 3:1)

      • In 39 A.D., he acquired Galilee & Perea from his uncle, Antipas

      • In 41 A.D., he became king of Judea, Samaria and Idumea from his uncle Archelaus

    • Lived in Jerusalem until his agonizing death in 44 A.D.

      • Which was an act of God (cf. Acts 12:21-23)

    • Persecuted Christians

      • Killed James, the brother of John, with the sword (Acts 12:1-2)

      • Cast Peter into prison (Acts 12:3-19)

    • Three of his children are mentioned in the NT

      • Agrippa II and Bernice (Acts 25:23)

      • Drusilla, who married Felix (Acts 24:24)

The roman jewish connection9
The Roman/JewishConnection

Slaughtered infants

Killed James

Worms ate him

Joseph & Mary feared

Beheaded John &

tried Jesus

Luke 3:1

North of Galilee

The roman jewish connection10
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Agrippa II (48-70 A.D.)

    • Only 17 years old when his father died, so authorities in Rome felt it best that he not succeed his father

      • Eventually, he was given a small realm, Chalcis, in the Anti-Lebanon mountains

      • Later was added the tetrachy of Philip and certain Galilean and Perean cities

    • Agrippa II is the one who said to Paul, “almost you persuade me to become a Christian” (Acts 26:28)

    • After the death of Agrippa I, most of Palestine returned to the rule of procurators

The roman jewish connection11
The Roman/JewishConnection

Slaughtered infants

Killed James

Worms ate him

Joseph & Mary feared

Beheaded John &

tried Jesus

Luke 3:1

North of Galilee

“almost persuaded”

“lived” with her brother

Felix’s wife, “convenient”

The roman jewish connection12
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • The Procurators

    • After the death of Archelaus in 6 A.D., Judea was governed by procurators appointed directly by Rome

    • Continued until the late 30s-early 40s A.D.

    • Headquarters in Caesarea

    • Procurator had three principal responsibilities:

      • Financial – Collect taxes for Rome

      • Military – Command the military forces of the province, in order to keep peace (handle the “little things”)

      • Judicial – Act as judge in important judicial cases

        • These judicial cases were almost entirely matters that involved possible capital punishment

        • Minor cases were left to the jurisdiction of local courts (ex. The Sanhedrin)

The roman jewish connection13
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Pontius Pilate

    • The procurator that mainly concerns the NT is Pilate, who, appointed by Tiberias, served as governor of Judea, Samaria and Idumea for 10 years (c. 26-36 A.D.)

    • Pilate was continually offending the Jews

      • He brought imperial ensigns into Jerusalem

      • He took sacred money from the Temple to finance an aqueduct for a water supply into Jerusalem

    • Though he lived in Caesarea, he came to Jerusalem during festive seasons—no doubt to keep the Jews under control (cf. Luke 13:1)

The roman jewish connection14
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Pontius Pilate

    • Most remembered for his cowardly conduct during the trial of Jesus

      • The illegally-convened night council determined that Christ must be put to death

      • In order to gain Roman approval, the Jews bound the Lord and sent Him to Pilate (Matt. 27:1-2)

      • The governor could find no fault with Christ

        • He thrice declared Him innocent (cf. John 18:38; 19:4, 6)

        • He ignored the advice of his wife (Matt. 27:19)

      • Fearfully delivered Jesus to be crucified (cf. John 19:8, 12)

    • Because of his on-going political blunders, Pilate was summoned to Rome in 36 or 37 A.D.

The roman jewish connection15
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Felix

    • Felix was a former slave of the household of Claudius

    • He was appointed procurator of Judea in 52 A.D.

    • One of his marriages was to Drusilla, daughter of Agrippa I, who had forsaken her husband to be his third wife

    • After the riot in Jerusalem in Acts 21:27ff, Paul was taken under guard to Caesarea where he made a defense before Felix (Acts 24:10ff)

      • Some days later, Paul reasoned of righteousness, self-control and the coming judgment before Felix and Drusilla (Acts 24:24ff)

      • Though Felix treated Paul kindly (cf. Acts 24:23), he nonetheless kept him imprisoned, hoping that the apostle would eventually bribe his way to freedom (Acts 24:26)

The roman jewish connection16
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Festus

    • Appointed by Nero to succeed Felix in 60 A.D.

    • Attempting to dispose of Paul’s case, Festus asked the apostle if he would be willing to return to Jerusalem to face his accusers

      • Paul, making use of the privileges of his Roman citizenship, declined, appealing his case to Caesar’s “supreme court” (Acts 25:6-12)

      • It was during this time that Agrippa II and his sister Bernice (with whom he was living in a reputedly scandalous relationship) arrived at Caesarea

        • Paul’s brilliant defense is recorded in Acts 26

        • His case was so impressive that Agrippa conceded that had not Paul already appealed to Caesar, he might well have been set free

The roman jewish connection17
The Roman/JewishConnection

  • Jewish revolution against Rome broke out in 66 A.D.

    • Vespasian was sent to put down the revolt

    • Upon the death of Nero (68 A.D.), Vespasian returned to Rome (he was proclaimed emperor), and dispatched his son Titus to finish the campaign against the Jews

    • After a horrible 5-month siege (cf. Matt. 24:21-22), Jerusalem fell.

      • Multiplied tens of thousands were slain or sold into slavery

    • With this calamity, the national identity of Judaism came to an end

      • The Sanhedrin and the Temple ceremonies were forever abolished

      • Judaism, religiously and politically, was buried