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Discussion Question Responses. Question: Using the examples of France during the French Revolution and Germany under Bismarck, what would be some challenges that newly-established nations/governments could possibly face during unification?

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discussion question responses
Discussion Question Responses
  • Question: Using the examples of France during the French Revolution and Germany under Bismarck, what would be some challenges that newly-established nations/governments could possibly face during unification?
  • Response #1: “A new nation/government could face challenges with other countries because the opposing countries may attack the country, knowing they are in their weakest moment, to gain more land. The people in the country may not agree with the new government or even the unification process, creating conflict inside the nation. A new nation will have to learn the way of government and also create allies with other countries. Another challenge would be the amount of time a country takes to acquire strength and power to join the game of domination. Also, the country will need to learn and grow in the economic field to flourish their empire. The military will have to be created by those willing to fight for their nation because of Nationalism. New nations are faced with many challenges.”
discussion question responses1
Discussion Question Responses
  • Response #2: “It is likely that a new government would face opposition from many groups and from other countries hoping to protect themselves from the outlast of the instability. Another challenge would be to create a stable economy to support the population and to allow the government to function without debt. Lastly, the challenge of creating new diplomatic relationships with the neighboring countries”
  • Response #3: “A new and unified government could face many challenges. When trying to unify nations, you will most likely have disagreements about the laws and how the government should be run. Trying to find a proper and qualified ruler or leader to take charge of the government would also be a challenge because the ideal person would have to please everyone, which is hard to do. Along with a new government will probably come some problems. Not many constitutions that are written or leaders that rule stay long or do everything right. It takes a few times to get it perfect.”
10 3 unifying italy

10.3 Unifying Italy

Objectives:

List the key obstacles to Italian unity

Describe the challenges that faced the new nation of Italy

main idea
Main Idea
  • Although the people of the Italian peninsula spoke the same language, they had not experienced political unity since Roman times. By the early 1800s, Italian patriots- including Giuseppe Mazzini, who would become a revolutionary in Italy- were determined to build a new, united Italy. As in Germany, unification was brought about by the efforts of a strong state, and furthered by a ruthless politician- Count Camillo Cavour.
obstacles to italian unity
Obstacles to Italian Unity
  • Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led Italian people to identify with certain regions:
    • Florence- Tuscans
    • Venice- Venetians
    • Naples- Neapolitans
  • The Congress of Vienna ignored Italian Nationalists who had hoped to achieve unity
    • Austria took control of much of northern Italy
    • Hapsburg monarchs ruled various Italian states
    • French ruled in Naples and Sicily
response to obstacles
Response to Obstacles
  • Many nationalist revolts took place across the northern region against the Austrians.
  • In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy, which was a secret society formed “to constitute Italy as a free, independent, republican nation.”
  • Another nationalist revolt took place in 1849 in France, but the French forces stopped it.
  • Nationalism was growing
the struggle for italy camillo cavour
The Struggle for Italy: Camillo Cavour
  • Count Camillo Cavour is made prime minister of Sardinia by King Victor Emanuel II
  • Cavour led Sardinia into the Crimean War, on the side of the French and British against Russia
  • Winning the Crimean War gained the trust of Napoleon, which led to a negotiated deal with Napoleon to aid Sardinia in case it faced war with Austria
  • Sardinia provoked that war in 1859, defeating Austria and annexing Lombardy.
  • Other nationalist groups overthrew Austrian-backed rulers in northern states, which joined Sardinia as well.
the struggle for italy giuseppe garibaldi
The Struggle for Italy: Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Like Mazzini, Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian republic, but also accepted aid from monarchist Cavour.
  • Garibaldi, armed with weapons and ships from Cavour, wins control of Sicily, and then crosses to the mainland and takes control of Naples as well.
  • Cavour fears that Garibaldi will set up his own republic in the South, urges Emmanuel II to send troops
  • Troops end up linking up with Garibaldi’s troops, and in a patriotic move, Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Emmanuel
  • In 1861, Emmanuel II becomes king of Italy
italy is finally united
Italy is Finally United
  • In 1861, there were still two areas of Italy that were still not unified: Rome and Venetia
  • Italy formed an alliance with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War and won the province of Venetia
  • France was forced to withdraw its troops from Rome in the Franco- Prussian War of 1870
  • Italy finally became a unified country in 1870.
challenges facing the new nation divisions
Challenges Facing the New Nation: Divisions
  • There was a divide between northern and southern Italy
  • Cities in the north flourished as centers of business and culture
  • Cities in the south were poor and rural. Despite a booming population, most peasants could only barely get by off of exhausted farmland
  • Hostility between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church also divided the nation
    • Popes resented the seizure of Papal States and Rome, and urged followers not to cooperate with new government
challenges facing the new nation turmoil
Challenges Facing the New Nation:Turmoil
  • Under Victor Emmanuel, Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a two-house legislature
  • In the late 1800s, unrest increased as radicals struggled against a conservative government
  • Socialists organized strikes and anarchists turned to sabotage and violence
  • Government slowly passes laws to allow more men to vote and to improve social conditions
economic progress in italy
Economic Progress in Italy
  • Despite the problems in Italy, it developed economically, especially after 1900.
  • Industrialization in the north brought with it urbanization, as peasants flocked to cities to find jobs in factories
  • Population explosion created tensions, but due to emigration, many Italians left Italy for the United States, Canada, and other Latin American nations.
  • Italy was much better off in the early 1900s, on the eve of WWI, than it was in 1861.