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Information Processes. Miss O’Grady IPT 2010. Information Processes.

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Information processes

Information Processes

Miss O’Grady IPT 2010


Information processes1
Information Processes

Developments in technology have been responsible for major changes in information processing. Today, information processing refers to the creation of information by processing data using information technology. This changing of data into information involves seven steps called information processes. These processes describe the procedures that an information system performs to process data into information. The steps are not necessarily separate and sequential. Several steps may occur at the same time. The rate at which these information processes are carried out is critical to the efficiency of an information system.


7 information processes
7 Information processes.....

  • Collecting

  • Organising

  • Analysing

  • Storing and Retrieving

  • Processing

  • Transmitting and Receiving

  • Displaying


Case study big v video
Case Study_ Big V Video

‘Big V is a video store that uses an information system. The manager and staff are Big V Video are continually using information technology to carry out the information processes. As we will go through the PowerPoint I will point out how this information system goes through each of the 7 information processes’.


Collecting
Collecting

  • Collecting is the information process that involves deciding what to collect, locating it and collecting it.

  • Data can come from either primary or secondary sources. Primary sources refers to data that is collected first-hand. Many organisations prefer to generate their own primary data because they consider it meaningful and reliable, although it is time-consuming and costly. Secondary sources refers to data that is collected or created by someone else. Example: newspapers, books, electronic databases, CD-ROMs and the Internet are secondary sources.


Collecting1
Collecting

  • Data is entered into an information system either manually or electronically.

    • Manual- Using a keyboard.

    • Electronically- Using devices such as scanners, digital cameras, microphones or sensors.

      Big V Video Store

      ‘Scanning and collecting the video and membership bar codes'.


Organising
Organising

  • Organising is the process that arranges, represents and formats data for use by other information processes. It is carried out after the data is collected.

  • Example: If the information system is used to store and search a large amount of data, the data needs to be categorised. This will allow it to be stored in a database.

  • Organising gives some structure to the data.

    Big V Video Store

    ‘’Ensuring the data is in the correct format to be used by the database'.


Analysing
Analysing

  • Analysing is the process that interprets data, transforming it into information. It involves examining data and giving meaning to it.

  • When data has been ordered and given some meaning by people, it is called information.

  • The type of analysis depends on the format of the data and information that is required.

  • Charts and graphs are often used in the analysis of data.

  • However if a “model” needed to be used to represent some aspect of the real world, simulation programs may be used.

    Big V Video Store

    ‘Searching and sorting the database to produce reports'.


Storing and retrieving
Storing and Retrieving

  • Storing and Retrieving is a two-step process for retaining data: storing saves data for later use on a storage device; retrieving obtains data that has been previously saved.

  • These processes are important since most information systems need to retain data for further processing and to guard against data loss.

    Big V Video Store

    ‘Saving the database to an external disk'.


Processing
Processing

  • Processing is the manipulation of data and information. It occurs whenever the data or information is modified and updated.

  • Processing is carried out by the Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  • Processing is the only information process that alters the actual data present in the system. Example: At the conclusion of each school year the front office updates the current year level for all students. Those in Year 7 are updated to Year 8 and so on. We define this to be a processing task as the data itself is altered.

    Big V Video Store

    ‘Calculating late fees on overdue videos'.


Transmitting and receiving
Transmitting and Receiving

  • Transmitting and Receiving is the transfer of data within and between information systems.

  • Transmitting is the process of sending data or information and receiving is the process of acquiring data or information.

    Big V Video Store

    ‘Transferring the data between peripheral devices'.


Displaying
Displaying

  • Displaying is the presentation of information from an information system.

  • Information is displayed using different peripheral devices:

    • Screens

    • Printers

    • Speakers

      Big V Video Store

      ‘Obtaining a weekly report of all the video transactions'.