Heart Attack. The Disease. What is a heart Attack?. when blood flow is blocked from reaching part of the heart prevents sufficient oxygen from reaching heart causes heart muscle to become damaged or die. also known as myocardial infarction. What are the Causes?.
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Heart Attack The Disease
What is a heart Attack? • when blood flow is blocked from reaching part of the heart • prevents sufficient oxygen from reaching heart • causes heart muscle to become damaged or die • also known as myocardial infarction
What are the Causes? Heart attacks are caused by: • blood clots blocking the coronary arteries • this stops blood flow and heart cells die • clot forms because coronary arteries becomes narrowed by plaque (atherosclerosis) • plaque cracks and triggers clot • less commonly from blood vessel problems and severe coronary artery spasm • spasm could be related to drugs, stress, smoking
Diabetes Family history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) High fat diet Race: higher risk in African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians High blood pressure Increasing age Smoking Unhealthy cholesterol levels Lack of exercise Stress Sex: men over 45, women over 55 Am I at Risk? Risk Factors
Shortness of breath Loss of consciousness Perspiration Severe crushing pain Tightness or squeezing in chest (Angina) Pain possibly spreading to left arm, shoulder, neck or jaw Light-headedness Many attacks begin slowly with mild pain May feel like heartburn/indigestion Nausea and vomiting How do I know if I am having a Heart Attack? Symptoms DO NOT IGNORE SYMPTOMS!
Diagnosing a Heart Attack • Physician uses stethoscope to find abnormal heart rhythms/sounds • Check pulse and blood pressure • Electrocardiograms (ECG) detect irregular heart beat (arrhythmia) or blocked coronary artery • Blood tests • High level of cardiac enzymes indicate damaged heart muscle • CK (creatine kinase), MB (myoglobin) and troponin released from damaged heart muscle (proteins)
Treating a Heart Attack Victim • While heart attack is occurring: • Take aspirin at home to help dissolve clot • Ambulance/Doctors will administer clot busters such as streptokinase and nitrates • Surgery may be needed to clear/open arteries • Put on oxygen • CPR may be needed or defibulation to restore heart beat • Morphine administered • Relieves pain, sedates, and reduces oxygen demand
After person is stabilized: • Thrombolytic Therapy • Medicine given to dissolve blood clots • Beta- Blockers • Decrease workload for heart, relieve pains, and correct arrhythmia • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzymes) inhibitors • Lower blood pressure, reduce strain for heart • Anticoagulents • Thin blood and prevent clots from forming • Antiplatelet Medicine • Stop platelets from clumping together
More Advanced Treatments • Angioplasty • Open coronary arteries • Catheter with balloon is threaded through blood vessel to blocked artery • Balloon then inflates pushing plaque aside • Doctors sometimes place a stent in the artery • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting • Arteries or veins are taken from other parts of the body to bypass arteries • These arteries/veins are then sewn in place • Open-heart surgery could be required if heart ruptures
Rehabilitation • Discharged from hospital after a week at earliest • Activites slowly increase over 8 weeks • Resume full schedule after 2 months out of the hospital • Long term treatment with beta-blockers and aspirin • Drugs to lower cholesterol are given • Badly damaged heart requires warfarin (anticoagulent) for 3 months
Facts • 40% of heart attacks are fatal • Half of these deaths occur in first hour • Over 1.1 million heart attacks in United States each year • One of the leading killers in America • Males have higher risks for heart attacks
Don’t smoke Healthy diet Control blood sugar Exercise Lose weight if obese Control BP Low fat diet Lower salt intake Lower cholesterol Control diabetes Reducing Your Risk Prevention
References Internet sources • Berger, A. (2009). Heart Attack- Overview. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000195.htm • Heart Attack: Warning Signs and Tips on Prevention. (2009). FamilyDoctor.org. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/heartdisease/basics/291.html • Heart Attack. (2008, March). National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (all articles on side used). Retrieved May 14, 2009, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/HeartAttack/HeartAttack_whatis.html
Book Sources • Bunch, Bryan. (2003). Heart Attack. “Diseases” (Vol. 4 pp. 70-72) Danbury: Scientific Publishing, Inc. • Margolis, S. (2005). Heart Attack. In medical guide to Health After 50 (pp. 376-380). New York, NY: Black Dog & Leventhal, Inc. Pictures • http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/coronary_artery.html • http://myhealth.ucsd.edu/library/healthguide/en-us/support/topic.asp?hwid=zm2431 • http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3205/2723962050_284c85ccf9.jpg • http://www.crestock.com/image/763286-heart-monitor-screen.aspx • http://www.firstaidmonster.com/images/products/FAM_ASPIRIN_1000-1520.jpg • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Angioplasty/Angioplasty_All.html • http://www.usageorge.com/Jokes/Jokes/No-smoking-sign.gif
Video • http://www.healthcentral.com/cholesterol/understanding-cholesterol-13-115.html