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CLIMATE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CLIMATE

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  1. CLIMATE CHAPTER 14

  2. 14.1 • Climatology is the study of Earth’s climate and the factors that affect past, present, and future. • Climate describes the long term weather patterns of an area (30 yrs.).

  3. Factors that affect climate: • Temperature • Precipitation • Wind • Other weather variables

  4. Data is averaged monthly or annually for at least 30 years to determine the normals (standards). • Weather on any given day can vary greatly from the normals.

  5. Causes of Climate • Latitude • Tropics • Temperate zones • Polar zones

  6. Topographic effects • Water – heats and cools slowerthan land • Coastal regions • Mountains – leeward vs. windward

  7. Air masses – form in distinct areas • Movement • Interactions

  8. 14.3 • Long term climate changes take place over a long period of time. • -ice ages – the average global temperatures drop by an average of 5 degrees celcius. The most recent ice age ended about 10,000 years ago.

  9. Short term climate changes are caused by regular variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns. • Seasons – caused by the tilt in the axis and the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. • El Nino – a band of warm ocean temperatures that occasionally develops off the western coast of South America. (Watch video)

  10. Natural causes of climatic changes • Solar activity – sun spot cycles • Earth’s orbit – becomes more elliptical about every 100,000 years. • Earth’s tilt – varies from 22.1o to 24.5o every 41,000 years (presently 23.5o). • Earth’s wobble – over a period of about 26,000 years, Earth wobbles as it spins around on its axis.

  11. - volcanic activity – large or multiple volcanic eruptions can trigger a climate change.

  12. 14.4 • Influences on the Atmosphere • The greenhouse effect – the natural heating of the Earth’s surface caused by certain atmospheric gases. This can lead to Global Warming.

  13. Global Warming – a rise in global temperatures • Burning of fossil fuels – auto’s, factories, homes, and businesses • Deforestation – trees use CO2 in photosynthesis, less trees means more CO2 remains in the atmosphere. • Environmental efforts – reduce the consumption of fossil fuels (Kyoto Treaty)