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Warm-up. If a pea plant is heterozygous for its yellow pod color, what is its genotype? What are the odds it will pass on a trait for yellow color? Use a Punnett square to show a cross of a heterozygous yellow-pod pea plant with a green-pod pea plant.

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warm up
Warm-up
  • If a pea plant is heterozygous for its yellow pod color, what is its genotype?
    • What are the odds it will pass on a trait for yellow color?
  • Use a Punnett square to show a cross of a heterozygous yellow-pod pea plant with a green-pod pea plant.
  • During what phase of meiosis do homologous pairs separate? During what phase of meiosis do sister chromatids separate?

X

XX

X

independent segregation for 2 traits on separate chromosomes
Independent Segregation for 2 traits on separate chromosomes

XX

XX

XX

XX

Or…

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

How many different combinations can be made

in gamete cells?

two factor cross
Two Factor Cross
  • Mendel crossed true-breeding plants that produce yellow round peas (YYRR) with true-breeding plants that produce green wrinkled seeds (yyrr)

Parent 1 YYRR 

YR

YR

YR

YR

yr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

Parent 2 yyrr 

yr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

yr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

F1 cross produces

genotype YyRr,

phenotype yellow and round

yr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

YyRr

dihybrid cross
Dihybrid Cross
  • Mendel then crosses two dihybrid plants
    • Remember: Monohybrid meant the organism was heterozygous for one trait (Yy)
      • The phenotypic ratio for a monohybrid cross is 1:2:1
    • Dihybrid: Heterozygous for 2 traits (YyRr)

Parent 1 YyRr 

YR

Yr

yR

yr

YR

YYRR

YYRr

YyRR

YyRr

Parent 2 YyRr 

Yr

YYRr

YYrr

YyRr

Yyrr

The phenotypic

ratio for a dihybrid

cross is 9:3:3:1

yR

YyRR

YyRr

yyRR

yyRr

yr

Yyrr

yyRr

yyrr

YyRr

let s practice
Let’s Practice!
  • EVERYONE DO THIS IN YOUR JOURNAL!
  • Let’s look at two traits for pea plants, flower color and plant height.
    • Flowers can be purple or white. Purple is dominant. What letter should we use?
      • P-purple, p-white
    • Plants can be tall or short. Tall is dominant. What letter should we use?
      • T-tall, t-short
  • We will cross dihybrid plants, what are their genotypes? What are their phenotypes?
    • PpTt
    • Purple and Tall
slide6

What are the possible genotype combinations for the gametes of these heterozygous plants?

Parent 1 PpTt 

PT

Pt

pT

pt

PpTt

PT

PPTT

PPTt

PpTT

Parent 2 PpTt 

Pt

PPTt

PPtt

PpTt

Pptt

pT

PpTT

PpTt

ppTT

ppTt

pt

PpTt

Pptt

ppTt

pptt