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The Wars of Religion. 7. science & philosophy vs sin, death, devil magic, the occult, demons witch hunts 16-17th c. sabbats, orgies, cannibalism Why the witch panics of the 16-17th c.?. roots of witchcraft: cunning folk single, widowed, old women belief in magic: marks of the devil

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slide2
science & philosophy vs sin, death, devil
  • magic, the occult, demons
  • witch hunts 16-17th c.
  • sabbats, orgies, cannibalism
  • Why the witch panics of the 16-17th c.?
slide3
roots of witchcraft:
      • cunning folk
        • single, widowed, old women
  • belief in magic:
  • marks of the devil
  • old, poor, female
slide4
Gender--women
      • 80%
      • exceptions
      • misogyny
      • “special powers” & wives as “outsiders”
      • midwives
      • dunking stool
      • Why did witch hunts end in 17th c.?
slide5
1533-1603
  • Queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603)
  • Edward VI
  • Mary I
slide6
Mother Anne Boleyn
  • queen at 25 years--ruled 45 years
  • Glorianna, Good Queen Bess, the Virgin Queen
  • foundation for world empire
  • English Renaissance
  • Background:
slide7
motto “video et traces”
  • Economy:
    • population, inflation, poor laws, wool trade
    • East India Company, explorers
  • divine right of rule & Star Chamber
  • Religion:
      • Sir William Cecil 1559-1563
      • politique
slide8
Anglican Church
    • No religious extremism
    • 1559 Act of Supremacy
  • Anglican Protestantism
      • 1559 Act of Uniformity and the Book of Common Prayer
      • Thirty-nine Articles
slide9
Challenges to her rule:
      • Catholics & Jesuits
      • Puritans
          • 2 complaints
          • purify it of “popery”
          • authority
          • presbyterians vs congregationalists
          • Conventicle Act of 1593
government
Government
  • Privy Council & Parliament
  • capable ministers
      • William Cecil
      • Sir Francis Walsingham as Secretary of State “keeper of secrets”
        • spymaster
      • 1586 law
  • Robert Dudley
  • marriage status as diplomacy
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • due to persecution of continental protestants
      • France
        • 1572 Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of Huguenots
      • Dutch Protestants
        • 1567 Duke of Alba
  • 1570 Pope Pius V
slide12
Sea Beggars
  • 1570’s English pirates--John Hawkins and Francis Drake
      • 1577-1580 Drake and Golden Hind circumnavigate the globe
  • 1585 war against Spain in support of Dutch
      • London-Antwerp trade
slide13
1588 Spanish Armada
  • 130 ships w. 25,000 men
  • Armada defeat led to:
  • final thoughts about Elizabeth:
spanish power
Spanish Power
  • 1556
  • 1588 decline (Armada defeat)
  • America’s wealth:
  • 1571 Battle of Lepanto
      • Don John of Austria
  • Portugal
early life
Early Life
  • 1527-1598
  • Background:
ruling style
Ruling Style
  • the Escorial
  • reclusive “king of paper”
  • “prudent king”
  • 1557 defeat of France
    • 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
  • reign characterized by:
marriages
Marriages
  • Maria of Portugal
      • Don Carlos (1535-1568)
  • Mary I Tudor of England
  • Elizabeth Valois of France (2 daughters)
  • Anna of Austria (5 children)
      • Philip III (1598-1621)
slide18
1566-1648
  • 17 provinces
      • north--United Provinces--Protestant
      • south--Spanish Netherlands--Catholic
  • Calvinism 1555 Antwerp
      • anti-Catholic iconoclasm
slide19
Margaret of Parma
    • Cardinal Granville
    • heresy laws
  • Dutch towns
    • 1564-1565
  • Iconoclastic Fury
    • Protestant Resistance Theory
duke of alba
Duke of Alba
  • 1567
  • 10,000 troops
  • Council of Troubles
  • (Council of Blood)
  • taxes led to resentment
william of orange the silent
William of Orange (the Silent)
  • 1533-1584
  • Prince of Orange
  • stadtholder
  • resistance leader
  • Count of Egmont
  • fled to Germany
slide22
Return of William 1568-1571
  • 1572 Sea Beggars
  • 1574 in Leiden:
  • 1576 Spanish Fury
  • resulted in:
  • 1579 Union of Utrecht
  • 1580 outlaw and Apologie (1581)
  • 1584 assassination in Delft
slide23
southern provinces
  • 1588 Armada to England
  • 1592
  • religious toleration
  • 1596
  • 1598
  • 1648 Peace of Westphalia
catherine de medici
Catherine de’Medici
  • 1519-1589
  • Machiavelli
  • Popes Leo X and Clement VI
  • kidnapped
  • marriage to Henri II
  • 10 children (7 survive)
  • outlives all but Henri III
accident
Accident
  • creates a power vacuum
  • 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
  • Philip II and Elizabeth Valois
  • 1559 tournament to tragedy
  • power shifts back to Spain
religious wars
Religious Wars
  • 8 civil wars--1562-1598
      • Guise vs. Valois
      • Catholic vs. Huguenot
wars part i
Wars Part I
  • First 3 wars had same script:
  • #1 1562-1563
        • Massacre of Vassey
  • #2 1567-1568
  • #3 1568-1570
        • Guise ally with Spain
        • Guise see Mary Stuart as political tool
slide28
Peace of St. Germain
  • favors Huguenots
  • Coligny returns to court (seen as moderate)
  • political marriage of Marguerite to Henry of Navarre as “first prince of the blood”
  • Catholic tension (Paris)
    • Protestant rhetoric (resistance theory)
    • economic tension
st bartholomew s day massacre 1572
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)
  • Paris wedding of August 17, 1572
  • August 22 Coligney wounded
  • preemptive strike August 24
  • Henry Navarre “converts”
  • War #4 1572-1573 La Rochelle resists/siege
  • Charles dies 1574/ Henri III crowned
  • 1576 Henri Bourbon escapes--War #5
slide30
Catholic League
  • War #6 1577
  • War #7 1580
  • Catherine allies with Guise
  • Henri III becomes anti-Guise
war 8 war of the three henries
War #8 War of the Three Henries
  • most important 1584-1589
  • Henri III (moderate Catholic & politique)
  • Henry of Navarre as heir:
  • Henry of Guise/Catholic League
      • Christmas Eve 1588 assassination
  • Henri III allies with Henry of Navarre
      • July 1589 assassination of Henri III
henri iv bourbon dynasty
Henri IV Bourbon Dynasty
  • 1589-1598 Catholic League Wars
  • 1593
      • Henry’s “perilous leap” and “Paris is worth a mass” conversion
      • politique
  • 1594 Henry enters Paris
slide33
Philip dies in 1598
  • peace with Pope--son raised Catholic (Louis XIII)
  • 1598 Edict of Nantes:
      • what, who, where, why
  • 1599 annulment and marriage to???????
      • Marie de Medicis--son Louis XIII
henri iv as king
Henri IV as King
  • France’s best king
  • “chicken in every pot”
    • economic recovery and the Duke of Sully
      • mercantilism
  • taxes used for:
    • Paulette tax
  • 1610 assassination of Henry IV
preconditions
Preconditions
  • Fragmented Germany
  • religious tensions
      • Peace of Augsburg 1555
      • problem:
      • Palatine elector
      • Spain:
      • Catholic League
      • Protestant Union
4 phases of the war
4 Phases of the War
  • Bohemian--1618-1625
  • Danish--1625-1630
  • Swedish--1631-1634
  • French--1635-1648
bohemian phase
Bohemian Phase
  • 1618-1625 (Bohemia is part of Austria Empire)
  • Ferdinand of Styria (Austria) becomes emperor Ferdinand II
  • “defenestration of Prague”
  • Palatinate elector (Calvinist) becomes king of Bohemia as Frederick V (“winter king”)
  • Protestant help
  • Catholic Prince of Bavaria
  • Battle of White Mountain
  • motive:
danish phase
Danish Phase
  • 1625-1630
  • motives:
  • Lutheran king Christian IV
  • Dutch and English help
  • France
  • General Albrecht von Wallenstein
  • Edict of Restitution 1629
  • Treaty of Lubeck 1629
swedish phase
Swedish Phase
  • 1631-1634
  • England, Netherlands, France
  • Cardinal Richelieu
  • GustavusAdolphus
  • motives:
  • Battle of Breitenfeld 1631
  • Battle of Lutzen 1632
  • von Wallenstein
french phase
French phase
  • 1635-1648
  • most devastating phase
  • motives:
  • Cardinal Richelieu
  • German states become pawns
treaty of westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
  • 1648
  • rescinds Edict of Restitution
  • Peace of Augsburg reasserted
  • Calvinists:
  • Bohemia:
  • Switzerland:
  • United Provinces:
  • German states: staatensystem (1870)
slide42
Brandenburg-Prussia
  • Austria
  • Sweden
  • France and Spain (1659)
  • German population
  • “reasons of state” vs religious reasons for war
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