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Manufacturing Process Layout

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  1. Milling Department Lathe Department Drilling Department M M D D D D L L M M D D D D L L G G G P L L G G G P L L Painting Department Grinding Department L L A A A Receiving and Shipping Assembly Manufacturing Process Layout

  2. Process (Job Shop) Layouts • Equipment that perform similar processes are grouped together • Used when the operations system must handle a wide variety of products in relatively small volumes (i.e., flexibility is necessary)

  3. Characteristics of Process Layouts • General-purpose equipment is used • Changeover is rapid • Material flow is intermittent • Material handling equipment is flexible • Operators are highly skilled • . . .more

  4. Characteristics of Process Layouts • Technical supervision is required • Planning, scheduling and controlling functions are challenging • Production time is relatively long • In-process inventory is relatively high

  5. In Out A Product Layout

  6. Product (Assembly Line) Layouts • Operations are arranged in the sequence required to make the product • Used when the operations system must handle a narrow variety of products in relatively high volumes • Operations and personnel are dedicated to producing one or a small number of products

  7. Characteristics of Product Layouts • Special-purpose equipment are used • Changeover is expensive and lengthy • Material flow approaches continuous • Material handling equipment is fixed • Operators need not be as skilled • . . .more

  8. Characteristics of Product Layouts • Little direct supervision is required • Planning, scheduling and controlling functions are relatively straight-forward • Production time for a unit is relatively short • In-process inventory is relatively low

  9. Description Type of process Product Demand Volume Equipment Comparison of Productand Process Layouts Product Process • Sequential arrangement of activities • Continuous, mass production, mainly assembly • Standardized, made to stock • Stable • High • Special purpose • Functional grouping of activities • Intermittent, job shop, batch production, mainly fabrication • Varied, made to order • Fluctuating • Low • General purpose

  10. Workers Inventory Storage space Material handling Aisles Scheduling Layout decision Goal Advantage Comparison of Productand Process Layouts Product Process • Limited skills • Low in-process, high finished goods • Small • Fixed path (conveyor) • Narrow • Line balancing • In-l,ine, U-type • Equalize work at each station • Efficiency • Varied skills • High in-process, low finished goods • Large • Variable path (forklift) • Wide • Dynamic • Functional • Minimize material handling cost • Flexibility

  11. Cellular Manufacturing (CM) Layouts • Grouping of machines in cells • Each cell results in the production of particular part family. • Similar parts are identified and grouped together. • Similarity can be either in shape,size or in manufacturing process • Operations required to produce a particular family (group) of parts are arranged in the sequence required to make that family • Used when the operations system must handle a moderate variety of products in moderate volumes

  12. Part families Part families with similarity in manufacturing process Part families with similarity in shape

  13. Assembly 4 7 9 6 8 5 12 2 10 3 1 11 A B C Raw materials Original Process Layout

  14. Machines Parts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A x x x x x B x x x x C x x x D x x x x x E x x x F x x x G x x x x H x x x Part Routing Matrix Figure 5.8

  15. Machines Parts 1 2 4 8 10 3 6 9 5 7 11 12 A x x x x x D x x x x x F x x x C x x x G x x x x B x x x x H x x x E x x x Reordered Routing Matrix

  16. Assembly 8 10 9 12 11 4 6 Cell 1 Cell 3 Cell 2 7 2 1 3 5 A B C Raw materials Revised Cellular Layout

  17. Source: J. T. Black, “Cellular Manufacturing Systems Reduce Setup Time, Make Small Lot Production Economical.” Industrial Engineering (November 1983) Automated Manufacturing Cell

  18. Characteristics of CMRelative to Process Layouts • Equipment can be less general-purpose • Material handling costs are reduced • Training periods for operators are shortened • In-process inventory is lower • Parts can be made faster and shipped more quickly • Equipment can be less special-purpose • Changeovers are simplified • Production is easier to automate

  19. Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) • FMS consists of numerous programmable machine tools connected by an automated material handling system and controlled by a common computer network • FMS combines flexibility with efficiency • FMS layouts differ based on • variety of parts that the system can process • size of parts processed • average processing time required for part completion

  20. Full-Blown FMS